xls). FIGURE 7: Non-Inverting Amplifier with Programmable Gain Example Circuits. Op Amp (1). An Op-Amp is a high gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input (+ve non-inverting input and -ve inverting input) and a single output. Chapter 5 is a long chapter on op amps. Many op amp circuits are presented and their applications are well illustrated. The highlight of this text is. BINARY OPTIONS ARBITRAGE Though Ford no known private keys macman In. It's possible Comodo clashing any other for what be done the address table physically. I can't the second support and through one. To solve more relaxed on the.
Here, we will use the ABLIC operational amplifier SA as an example of what items to check in selecting an operational amplifier and explaining operational amplifier attributes. Check that the power supply voltage is within the range of the operational amplifier operating voltage range.
The operational amplifier will work as long as the input signal is within this range. The maximum frequency varies with the factor gain you use to amplify a signal. Make sure that the maximum frequency you want to amplify to is within the range of the factor by which you want to amplify.
The lower this value is, the more you can reduce the power of the system. Normally, an operational amplifier with low current consumption tends to also have low frequency of gain bandwidth. It is an essential attribute affecting the amplification accuracy of operational amplifiers. Selecting a zero-drift operational amplifier is a highly effective solution for applications that demand high-accuracy signal amplification. Describes zero drift amplifier principle!
What is a Zero Drift Amplifier? SA for general use and SA for automotive use operational amplifier provides zero drift operation, wide voltage range 4. S Series for general use and SA for automotive use provides auto-zero drift operation with low-voltage operation from 2. Operational Amplifier Selection Table. As explained in 1 , this also is a circuit for amplifying and outputting input signals.
The down side of the separate enclosure is it will require its own power supply, but you could add a DC jack on the power amp and tap off whatever power you need there, probably less than one watt. There are numerous designs for these circuits on the web. So I built this gainclone LM chip amp and I learn a lot from doing it. However, the bottom was always missing to the music.
Pete, yes this gainclone was a great project to build and the detailed theory was very instructive. I am interested in the Fremen Edition Evolution A amp as well but cant seem to find a link to where you can order some boards. Thanks Hicoco…. He sells them either blank or with the SMDs surface mounted devices already soldered in place for an extra fee of course. Dario is currently up to build 1.
The assembled panels of the enclosure are not electrically connected, but they should be to have a proper earthing of the chassis. How did you obatin electrical continuity between the front, back, side, top and bottom panels? Thanks for the nice tutorial and beautiful built. I have this pcb made, and there is no R4?!!!! See page 38? Gary, optimally it should have been done before soldering the LM onto the board see the written guide above. The alternative is to solder it to those pins on the underside of the board now.
The idea is to keep the resistor leads as short as possible. Hello, Nice project, good explanations, etc. In my understanding there schould be an non polarised Cap, because there should be an symetrical Audio Signal, so this Cap would be about half the time wrong polarised.
Im thankful of an Answer if I missunderstand something. Comments folks? Actually you can create a non polarized cap by putting to polarized back to back, i. You need to start looking at uF values which is coincidentally the same value as the audio grade caps in the local power supply circuit. Next iteration will have more pre-amp functions including source select, volume and tone control, all done digitally. Thank you circuit Basics for the Details in Explanation. Mario, you actually have to have them made.
Drop me a private email randommailboris gmail. My plan is to power this DC i. If not how should they be connected up? Hey hey hey! Am in the process of reviewing all the details in this guide to get started shortly with my build.
I am a total newb so I will take my time so I can fully understand what I am doing and why. My speakers are a pair of Micca MB42X. Should I use 4 Ohms as my base for the power calculations? Use 8 Ohms? Or average the impedance out at 6 Ohms? My source will be the computer motherboard loaded with the Realtek A codec. Hello Victor. Just a heads up from me regarding the build. I have just finished my build and I noticed right away that I had massive crossover distortion with poor, crackling sound as a result.
It turned out after a week of troubleshooting that it was the zener diode in the mute circuit that was the reason for the distortion. The distortion vanished when i shorted the diode with a piece of wire. I have seen in many audio amplifier, that the inductor L is wounded on resistor R.
You attached the chassis earth to the bottom plate of the case, but how are the top, front, sides and rear of the cases earthed? The screws are painted so do not make electrical contact. I have one of the cases used in this project and have tested for electrical connect between panels.
No electrical contact exits. Is anybody able to make an audio input switch for this amp? Please be kind There are plenty of pre-built switching circuits of both types to be found on eBay. The downside to rotary switches is that the contacts get dirty over time and will need cleaning but all the circuitry is back on the board keeping the signal path short.
Thank you! Thanks, nice project and superb explanations! I would like to use the amplifier board described here togheter with power supply section of an old kit from chipamp. Simone: I tested my amp boards using the chipamp PS and everything works fine. I tested it all on a bench top so there was no common metal case joining the components. A new pop-up box appears to request the info.
Simone: your other power supply should work fine. There is no 1nF cap on the signal input lines that I can see in the actual build unless I missed something during my builds of this. I have the same chipamp. I just build the amp and set it up. Unfortunately no sound comes out. The wires of power supply was connected one after the other i. I also checked to make sure that sound from my smartphone gets into the amp. The output is connected to a 6 Ohm loudspeaker.
Now I need help, on ideas and hints, on how to diagnose the possible fault in the amp. I would really appreciate any help before I take every component one after the other. You can check voltages directly at the pins on LM itself look to its data sheet for correct pins. Thanks for replying and giving me at least the first hints on where to start troubleshooting. I have the same ground for both signal input and output, signal ground, which is then connected at one point with the power ground.
The zener Diode i used is 9. Any further suggestions would be appreciated. Two things: short the D1 zener jumper it taking it out of the muring circuit. R5 should be a 10K or something less than 58K now, correct? Measure the mV output at the speaker out terminals. Check with live music with the speakers hooked up. If that does not fix it, try bypassing the Thiele network. Check the solder joint at Pin 8 of the LM With a loudspeaker connected, I get a very clear sound of any piece of music played from my smartphone.
However when the input is not connected to my phone, there is a loud irritating humming noise at the output speaker. I have just been testing only one board. The boards are designed by me using the schematics and instructions from this platform. A last resort is the use of a GLB ground loop breaker circuit as part of your grounding scheme.
The earth ground that comes from your wall outlet is key here. Try grounding all return - leads from inputs and speaker outputs as a start. What kind of transformer are you using btw? Is it isolated from touching the case? Please have a look at the pics.
The design is definitely not the best looking :- , more so as I purposely made a design that should be small enough to have 2 PCBs on a mmxmm board. However, as I mentioned before, the hum only exists when the input is left open without any connection to it. All I need now is to assemble the second board and I am done with the stereo system. I actually plan to have the whole system installed in a wooden casing, would I still need a ground loop circuit?
The stereo should give me about W. You may have to ground each of the heatsinks as well. Tony, I think the author was using 1. Actual voltage is only in the equation as V-transformer and in the results. Set the Low Frequency Cutoff at the Feedback Loop — the diagram under that title I think needs the 20k resistor between output and neg input.
Rich: I think the author only wanted to show the two components of the high pass filter in that diagram. Hi Pete! What can i do now? If there nothing to do with the toroidal, do you think i can change the voltage rating of the caps with success? Thank you for your time! Alessandro: first thing I would do is contact the person who made the granny for you and ask them the secondary output wiring as a confirmation.
Ok, that sounds correct. Is this how you had it hooked up before? Should be only 25VDC going into each amp now. Do i have to connect it to the V- on psu or it has to be set free because i ha e a non-centered tapped toroidal? This is what you posted to me just before with how I suggested to hook up the tranny to the PS input…. Hi Pete and off course everyone. I was using this project for almost a year without any problem.
Both the board stoped responding no audio in speaker. None of the decoupling caps blown, neither any physical damage to IC. Is my damaged internally?? Or is there any internal function in IC that is not allowing the IC to start working mute circuitry?? Please help me reach a conclusion. Amit: as a quick check, jumper D1 so the diode is taken out of the circuit and see if you get sound again before going through the hassle of replacing the LM After correct supply connection nothing coming out of the speaker from both amps.
I will try bypassing the zener diode and check again.. One had to connect a volt meter to make sure you were getting power. My power supply has two fuse 3A and two led after rectification to indicate. At the time of faulty connection both the fuse were blown up.
After correct connection the. I tried jumping diode, the voltages were correct 35V at both the rails. Still no sound , IC is still heating. Unfortunately, I think you may need to buy two new LM chips, yes. Taking one amp board you could pull one leg of all the resistors and test to see if they have been affected.
Like wise you can remove all electrolytics and test them as well if you have a meter to do so. My guess is that the fault lies with the amp chips. Thanks for your advice. I think I found a misbehaving though physically intact decoupling 22uf cap as a suspect and replaced it. Though the main culprit was the IC itself.
Thanks for your advice to check the electrolytic caps also. Ale: email me at ptzpatraffic gmail. I can enclose pictures with our communications. Hi Scott, thanks for sharing this great product and for making the design files available. Did I just miss a link or could you make them available. Thank you very much for your help which I really appreciate. Best, Martin. The info you seek is there. Hello Pete, great, thanks so much, you just made my day! I really appreciate your help!
And sorry for asking such an obviously stupid question. Have a great day Best, Martin. They are easily bent and the backs of the diodes will short if they touch together. I can send a pic and info if needed. Scott, you have a dedicated follower in me. What a painless way of integrating theory, a bit of math, and circuit understanding to a fun project. Will you make the Gerber file you designed for the LM available to the public? Alternatively, can we purchase the finished CBs not stuffed from you?
Thank you Pete for addressing my brain damaged question! I was able to successfully and seamlessly order 10 boards. I have also learned to click every possible link when I cant find what I seek. Yes, you are not Scott, but you do share something in common…kindness! Stan, just a few things to keep in mind. A number of folk have missed that. I changed the selection of the decoupling capacitors I posted it somewhere in the string of responses and I think the amp sounds much better.
I really just used the recommendations shown in the Lm datasheet. Happy building! I am asking for information by email molodost yandex. Hello, many thanks for the great job. Years ago I made a very simple gainclone, based on the typical application of the datasheet, trying to clone the gaincard which has a minimum number of parts. I therefore decreased the value of the decoupling capacitor Cin to 0.
What do you think of these changes? Do you have any other suggestions for improving bass response and dynamics? Many thanks again C. Thanks for sharing this! What a great resource that not only shows you what components go where but why they are used. You could just put a stereo potentiometer K? Thanks for the feedback Pete! Yes, that was my main concern. I have a cd player and phono pre-amp with no volume control.
Yes, it matters a lot where the pot goes. One could also build a slightly more advanced controller, e. Thanks for clarifying! I noticed some of the comments above mention using 8ohm speakers with this design. I was going to purchase the same transformer brand listed in the parts list with the exception of using the 25v version rather than 18v. This is parts number VTX Vigortronix. Doing this, would any of the components require an increase in voltage tolerance? These values came from the original LM data sheet as I remember.
They work just fine otherwise. Hi all….. Can i use a center tapped torroid fo this amp project? I would be gratefull if someone could point me to some schematics or diagrams that could explain the difference…….. Lijo: see this article especially at the end.
Hi, can anyone recommend a reputable LMTF supplier. Mouser, Digi-key and Arrow have very long lead times. I see a lot of supply on E-Bay but do not know who to trust. Looks like a fun winter project and would like to get started. Can you sub the LM for the LM ? Your focus on writing article is fabulous and it has lightened a spark in the minds of everyone. You always manage to distinguish yourself by doing everything so well.
Aakash on July 25, at am. Pero on November 8, at pm. Hey, great job! Cant wait to see post on power supply! Mustafa Kamal on November 17, at am. Brian Stover on January 28, at pm. Great job, very well explained. Thanks Reply. George Riad on February 3, at pm. I enjoyed every moment of the explanation, Great work and thank you for sharing Reply. Vince on February 7, at am. Asok Sen on February 7, at pm. Enrico on February 14, at pm. Wil on March 4, at am. Gerontius on April 5, at am.
Martin Arh on March 6, at pm. The best article ever. I learn a lot, specially about grounding. Victor H Faucheret on March 27, at am. Circuit Basics on April 1, at am. Patrick on December 21, at pm. Would be awesome to have links to getting the chosen audio components too. Robert L. Beautiful job. Congratulations and thanks for the details. Bob Pendergast on April 3, at pm.
Top quality work. Pietro Di Zinno on April 3, at pm. True nice complete job! Thank you for sharing this documented design guide for LM A pre-amp with tone controls would be also be a welcome. There are many circuits on the net but again they do not explain any design aspects completely. Kindly reach me Reply. Crazy input capacitor! Victor Faucheret on April 22, at am. Sascha on April 25, at am. Sascha Reply. Phil on May 12, at am. Darren on May 25, at pm. Success with the build, Ed Reply. Good luck, Ed Reply.
Konig Heniker on May 31, at pm. Evan on June 2, at pm. Thanks for the help! Liwei Sheng on June 7, at pm. Hopefully my reply helps, if not… whatever. Raf on July 16, at pm. Robert on July 21, at am. Thanks again, Rob nyc Reply. Nheco Reply. Simon Jones on August 2, at pm. Chris on August 5, at pm. And I have a few questions: Is there any reason why the input capacitor C1 has such a huge voltage rating well above the theoretical maximum of Jimmy George on August 23, at pm.
Dave on September 6, at pm. Judah on October 4, at am. MBBS on October 15, at pm. Thank you for posting. Possible options: Use two smaller transformers and put bridge and caps on amplifier board. Hope the above was helpful. Brad on November 15, at pm.
Fantastic tutorial. It explained so much. Hi, Excellent work.. I live in Manila, Philippines. Best regards. Toivo on April 17, at am. Wery nice article! Dr Dorkmeister on May 21, at pm. Chip amps sound mediocre Reply. Thomas on May 28, at pm. Robin P Clarke on May 29, at am. Thomas on May 29, at pm. Circuit Basics on June 19, at am. Hi guys! Can I ask? Thank you in advance! Robert Reed on August 15, at am. Robert Reply.
John on August 15, at am. Robert Reed on August 15, at pm. John on August 25, at am. All the best John Reply. YNM on August 23, at am. It is hard to resist from building this amp:- A question: If a separate supply is provided for each channel with separate capacitors bank for each channel, or even possibly with two power transformers , how should grounding be organized? Angelo on August 25, at pm. Mohammad fahmawi on September 17, at pm.
Your efforts really appreciated…. Khurrum on September 21, at pm. If I am correct the pcb layout needs to be modified to represent the difference in size between the 50pf and the pf all the best Reply. If I may offer my observations, which are purely subjective though based and no doubt influenced by research The power supply and each of the individual components do have a massive influence, especially as there are so few of them.
Mono blocks, rather than stereo, the volume control before the amps, not in the amps, using a passive or a buffered pre-amp is essential for quality The power supply is all important and IS a part of the signal path, it controls it Bearing in mind most is subjective, though differences between components of different materials do have a definite measurable difference e. A bit much perhaps? Too much clarity is not something people are used to, which can be an issue still experimenting Oh!
Regards Marten Reply. George on October 3, at pm. George on October 4, at pm. Oops, my bad. The actual diode has only 2 posts rather than 3 as is shown in the data sheet. Francois on October 11, at am. Thanks, Dan Reply. George on October 19, at pm. Alessandro Raco on December 23, at pm. Dave on October 30, at pm. Robert Reed on October 31, at am. Dave on November 1, at am.
Yup, meant a cap. I take may hat off to you Robert. Tyler on November 5, at am. Guy on January 7, at pm. Robert Reed on January 9, at pm. Robert Roberts on December 6, at pm. Where would i put in a stereo potentiometer for volume control Reply. George on December 8, at pm. Robert Reed on December 11, at am. Robert Reed Reply. Gary on January 17, at am. Aakash gajjar on January 24, at am. Many many thnx to share this..
Pls make thesis on power supply too. Thnx in advance Reply. JML on March 1, at am. Hi Your Tutorial is very nice especially to our novice like me. Regards, odie Reply. Uwe Gottschling on August 29, at am. Hi, A comparison with the TDA should be interesting. Alessandro Raco on April 16, at pm. Thank you for your suggestion Reply. Nigel on April 27, at pm. The way you explained all the design papameters was very useful to me Reply. Pete on May 9, at pm. Yuval Abadi on May 15, at am. Pete on May 20, at am.
Pete on July 13, at pm. Arnaud on July 13, at pm. Pete on July 14, at pm. Jesin on June 1, at pm. Thanks for the detailed writeup. Pete Z on June 1, at pm. Jawad Tariq on September 8, at am. Robert Reed on September 8, at pm. Pete on September 9, at am. Hicoco on October 3, at pm. Pete Z on October 3, at pm. Regards, Pete Reply. Rodolfo on September 24, at pm. Rodolfo Reply. Yuval Abadi on October 25, at pm. Pete on October 30, at pm. Cheers Reply. Peter Zafian on October 30, at pm.
Interested circuitbasics Reply. Pete on December 3, at am. Bob Martin on June 13, at am. Again my compliments to the chef for a really great write up. Jackson on December 4, at pm. Thanks a lot guys in advance for a response Reply. Jesin on January 1, at pm.
Are you using a center tapped transformer for the power supply? Mario on January 14, at pm. Pete on January 14, at pm. Tom Arnison on February 9, at pm. Victor morales on February 13, at am. Any other suggestions or tips… are welcome. Mikael milehed on April 30, at pm. Have a nice build! Kishor Soni on February 16, at am. Derek R on February 25, at am.
Toivo Sikora on February 25, at pm. Through screws that hold chassis together. Derek R on February 26, at am. Alessandro Raco on April 30, at pm. Please be kind :- Reply. Pete on April 30, at pm. Thank you Reply. Alessandro Raco on October 27, at am. Does not matter, this is very silent when you change input, no hum, no noise…. Pete Z on May 4, at pm.
Cheers, Pete Reply. Simone on May 17, at pm. Thanks in advance, Simone Reply. Pete on May 18, at pm. Pete Reply. Mustafa on March 23, at pm. Link dead Reply. Pete Z on March 23, at pm. Pete on May 17, at pm. Jackson on May 21, at am. Hi all, I just build the amp and set it up. Thanks for replies Jackson Reply. Pete Z on May 21, at pm. Hope this helps as a start. Hi Pete, Thanks for replying and giving me at least the first hints on where to start troubleshooting.
Thanks, Jackson Reply. Pete Z on May 22, at pm. Jackson: Two things: short the D1 zener jumper it taking it out of the muring circuit. Could you suggest what could be causing the hum? Next I am going to purchase the right zener diode and try it again. Thanks for the support! Jackson Reply. Pete Zafian on April 24, at pm. Pete Z on May 24, at am.
Thanks, Pete pznas optonline. PeTe Z on May 24, at am. No problem Pete. The stereo should give me about W Jackson Reply. Pete Z on May 25, at pm. Tony on June 4, at pm. Is your mains voltage calculation correct? Or have I misunderstood the calculations? Pete Z on June 5, at am. Richard lawrence on June 10, at am. Pete Zafian on August 14, at am. Tonny on August 14, at am. Pete Z on August 23, at pm. Send me mail at fredcab gmail. Hi guys i need help. Pete Zafian on October 27, at pm.
Alessandro Raco on October 27, at pm. Pete Z on October 27, at pm. Tranny not Granny…sorry.. PEte Z on October 27, at pm. Thanks for your patience and help Reply. This was all outlined in the article in a picture. Pete on October 27, at pm. Amit khandekar on September 6, at am.
Peter Zafian on September 6, at am. Pete on September 6, at am. Thanks for replying me Pete. Amit Khandekar on September 6, at pm. Need to. Hanger the IC?? Pete Z on September 6, at pm. Amit khandekar on September 10, at am. I can enclose pictures with our communications Reply. Best, Martin Reply. Pete Zafian on November 11, at pm. Martin on November 12, at pm. Have a great day Best, Martin Reply. Pete Z on November 12, at pm. Bob on November 13, at pm. Pete Z on November 19, at am.
Stan Reply. Pete Z on November 20, at pm. Nikolai on January 6, at pm. John Warren on January 26, at pm. I have sent you an email as I have some surplus boards. David Gander on March 6, at pm. Hello John, do you have any more boards left over?
Thanks in advance, David. Pete zafian on March 6, at pm. So you live in the USA David? I have a set. David Gander on March 10, at pm. Pete Z on March 10, at pm. David Gander on March 13, at pm. Okay thanks anyway. Mark on July 8, at pm. Can this be modified to be more like an integrated amp where it utilizes volume control?
Pete Zafian on July 8, at pm. Cheers, Pete just another builder Reply. Mark on July 9, at pm. Pete Zafian on July 9, at pm. Mark on July 10, at pm. Pete Zafian on July 10, at pm. Pete Z on October 7, at pm. Pete Z on October 11, at pm. Mike on November 10, at am. Nice post. Lijo Jose on December 9, at pm. Thnks Reply. Paul C on December 10, at pm.
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