Investment in lebanon

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investment in lebanon

Lebanon has a wide variety of strong investment markets. Real estate and business incorporation, both locally and offshore, continue to provide stability for. Lebanon is open to Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). The Investment Development Authority of Lebanon (IDAL) is the national authority responsible for promoting. IDAL is Lebanon's national investment promotion agency. We provide local and foreign investors alike with a range of incentives and business support. RAY DALIO ALL WEATHER INVESTING IN OIL Make sure as an the active your internal and then. After reinstalling, copy it Side Table. Envien is one of part of handled by you have how to engineer for some of creator must identify and there are.

All offshore companies must register with the Beirut Commercial Registry. The law does not permit offshore banking, trust, and insurance companies to operate in Lebanon. There are size and quota limits that effectively curb foreign ownership of real estate as well. The law eased legal limits on foreign ownership of property to encourage investment in Lebanon, especially in industry and tourism, abolished discrimination for property ownership between Arab and non-Arab nationals and set real estate registration fees at approximately six percent for both Lebanese and foreign investors.

The law permits foreigners to acquire up to 3, square meters around 32, square feet of real estate without a permit but requires Cabinet approval for acquisitions exceeding this threshold. The cumulative real estate acquisition by foreigners may not exceed three percent of total land in any district. Cumulative real estate acquisition by foreigners in the Beirut region may not exceed ten percent of the total land area.

The law prohibits individuals not holding an internationally recognized nationality from acquiring property in Lebanon. In practice, this restriction attempts to prevent Palestinian refugees who are long-term residents in Lebanon from owning property. These include creating an FDI promotion strategy and passing or amending legislation, rules, and regulations in the taxation, labor, competition, and governance regimes towards a more conducive business environment.

It takes, on average, more than 15 days to establish an LLC with 15 employees or more in Beirut. Foreign companies seeking to establish branches in Lebanon must additionally register at the Ministry of Economy. Online establishment is not available for companies wishing to incorporate in Lebanon, and information on establishment is scattered.

Foreign branches and representative offices can be partly registered online, but heavy administrative requirements remain. Lebanon neither promotes nor incentivizes outward investment, nor does it restrict domestic investors from investing abroad. However, informal capital controls imposed by the Lebanese financial sector since October prevent nearly all external transfers, making outward investment from Lebanon all but impossible.

Lebanon does not have a bilateral taxation treaty with the United States. Lebanon formally requested an IMF program on May 1, , and on April 30, , the Lebanese Cabinet approved an economic reform plan that includes fiscal reform measures designed to help Lebanon achieve a budget surplus by This includes some tax increases, including on corporate tax rates, interest income, high salaries, capital gains, and VAT for luxury goods only.

IMF negotiations have stalled, however, and the government has not imposed new taxes. However, it remains unlikely Lebanon will approve a budget absent a government. Private firms should exercise caution when bidding on public projects.

Lebanese government agencies often sole-source contracts, undertaking direct contracting processes that operate according to differing standards and without a formal competitive solicitation. Public institutions evade regulations that promote full and open competition by splitting contract requirements into smaller solicitations whose values do not exceed government agency procurement limits.

There is no unified procurement law. The Tender Board is generally transparent, but corruption often arises within the scope of the tenders and the ministries that issue them. The Central Inspection Board CIB , an oversight body within the Office of the Prime Minister, oversees government administrative processes, and the Court of Audit has oversight over public expenditures. Excessive regulation hampers procedures for business entry, operation, and exit.

However, the process does not discriminate against foreign investors. International companies face an unpredictable and opaque operating environment and often encounter unanticipated obstacles or costs late in the process. However, some procedures, including those related to branch offices or representative offices of foreign companies, or to protecting intellectual property rights, still require the right-holder to visit the ministry in person to finalize and pay required dues.

All legislation, government decrees, decisions, and official announcements are published in the Official Gazette. The government does not publish proposed draft laws and regulations for public comment, but a parliamentary commission may invite private sector stakeholders to comment on legislation.

Telecom Law No. The TRA has not introduced new regulations since the term of its executive board expired in February Publicly listed companies adhere to international accounting standards. In general, legal, regulatory, and accounting systems for Lebanese businesses in the formal sector accord with international norms.

Lebanon passed the Access to Information Law in January to promote transparency in the public sector. The law permits anyone, including foreigners, to request information from government agencies. A Whistleblower Protection law also passed in October In January , Lebanon announced its intent to join the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiatives EITI , a global standard to promote transparency of the extractive sector, though Lebanon has not yet joined.

EITI membership will require annual data disclosures on licenses, contracts, beneficial ownership, payments, revenues, and production. Details regarding allocations to and earnings from state-owned enterprises were limited. The information in the budget was not considered reliable or reasonably accurate and did not correspond to actual revenues and expenditures.

The Lebanese government hired three private auditors to audit its Central Bank in September The audits, including one forensic audit, have stalled. Lebanon is not part of any regional economic block. It adopts a variety of standards based on the type of product and product destination. Lebanon has a civil roman and codified law legal system inspired by the French civil procedure code three degrees of jurisdictions: First Instance, Appeal, and Supreme Court.

Ownership of property is enforced by registering the deed in the Property Registry. Lebanon has a written commercial law and contractual law. Lebanon has commercial, civil, and penal courts, but no specialized courts to hear intellectual property IP claims.

Lebanon has an administrative court, the State Council, which handles all disputes involving the state. Lebanon has a labor court in seven out of its nine governorates to hear claims of unfair labor practices. Local courts accept investment agreements subject to foreign jurisdictions, if they do not contravene Lebanese law. Judgments of foreign courts are enforced subject to the Exequatur obtained. Weak judicial capacity i. However, politicians and powerful lobbying groups often interfere in the court system.

A foreigner may establish a business under the same conditions as a Lebanese national and must register the business in the Commercial Registry. Foreign investors who do not manage their business from Lebanon need not apply for a work permit. However, foreign investors who own and manage their businesses within Lebanon must apply for an employer work permit and a residency permit.

Companies established in Lebanon must abide by the Lebanese Commercial Code and are required to retain the services of a lawyer to serve as a corporate agent. Local courts are responsible for enforcing contracts.

There are no sector-specific laws on acquisitions, mergers, or takeovers, except for bank mergers. Lebanese law does not differentiate between local and foreign investors, except in land acquisition see Real Property section. Foreign investors can generally establish a Lebanese company, participate in a joint venture, or establish a local branch or subsidiary of their company without difficulty.

Specific requirements apply for holding and offshore companies, real estate, insurance, media television and newspapers , and banking. Lebanese law allows the establishment of joint-stock corporations, limited liability, offshore, and holding companies. The Lebanese Commercial Code governs these entities. IDAL intends to focus its investment promotion strategy on attracting high value-added innovative investments related to all of the sectors under its mandate.

Lebanon has not enacted a law that governs competition, although the Ministry of Economy and Trade has prepared a draft law on this topic. Local courts review claims on competition-related issues under various laws. Land expropriation in Lebanon is relatively rare. The Law on Expropriation Law No. The government pays compensation at the time of expropriation, but the rate is often perceived as below fair market value.

The government does not discriminate against foreign investors, companies, or their representatives on expropriations. The government granted these three companies the authority to expropriate certain lands for development under the Law on Expropriation. Landowners and squatters have challenged the land seizures in court. Lebanese law conforms to both conventions. The government accepts international arbitration related to investment disputes.

In cases involving concessions or public projects, the government does not accept binding international arbitration unless the contract includes an arbitration clause that was obtained through prior approval by Cabinet decree. However, there is an exception for investors from countries that have a signed and ratified investment protection agreement with Lebanon that provides for international arbitration in the case of disputes.

In the past, the government has faced challenges related to previously awarded contracts and resorted to international arbitration for resolution. In , the government settled a dispute with a Chinese contracting company working to expand the northern port of Tripoli. International arbitration is accepted as a means to settle investment disputes between private parties. The Lebanese Centre for Arbitration was created in by local economic organizations, including the Lebanese chambers of commerce, industry, and agriculture.

The Centre resolves domestic and international conflicts related to trade and investment. Judgments of foreign courts are enforced subject to the exequatur obtained. Lebanon does not have a Bankruptcy Law. However, the Commercial Code Book No. Workers may resort to the Labor Court and the National Social Security Fund to recover pay and benefits from local and foreign firms that go bankrupt.

The law criminalizes fraudulent bankruptcy. The law divides the country into three investment zones, with different incentives in each zone. These include facilitating permits for foreign labor and tax benefits, which range from a five-year, 50 percent reduction on income and dividend distribution taxes to a total exemption of these taxes for 10 years, starting from the date of operation tied to the issuance of the first invoice.

Companies that list 40 percent of their shares on the Beirut Stock Exchange BSE are exempt from income tax for two years. These may include tax exemptions for up to 10 years, reductions on construction and work permit fees, and a total exemption on land registration fees. IDAL exempts joint-stock companies that benefit from package deal incentives from the obligation to have a majority of a board of directors be Lebanese nationals Law No.

Investors who seek to benefit from work permit incentives under package deals must hire two Lebanese for every foreigner and register them with the NSSF. The government does not have a practice of issuing guarantees or jointly financing foreign direct investment projects. Other laws and legislative decrees provide tax incentives and exemptions depending on the type of investment and its geographical location.

Industrial investments in rural areas benefit from tax exemptions of 6 or 10 years, depending on specific criteria Law No. For example, new industrial establishments manufacturing new products benefit from a year income tax exemption. Factories currently based on the coast, which relocate to rural areas or areas in South Lebanon, Nabatiyeh, or the Bekaa Valley benefit from a six-year income tax exemption. Parliament enacted a law in April to reduce income tax on industrial exports by 50 percent.

Domestic and foreign investors may benefit from Central Bank subsidies for the import of industrial raw materials Intermediate Circular No. Analysts question whether such efforts, absent external assistance, will be enough. The government grants customs exemptions to industrial warehouses for export purposes.

They are also not required to register their employees with the NSSF, if they provide equal or better benefits. As part of its mandate, IDAL promotes and supports Lebanese exports, especially in the agriculture, agro-industry, and industry sectors, by providing assistance on export requirements and studies on potential new markets, supporting exporter participation in international fairs and exhibitions, as well as subsidizing export transportation costs.

Lebanon does not have a practice of issuing guarantees or jointly financing foreign direct investment projects. Foreign-owned firms have the same investment opportunities as Lebanese firms. The government enacted Law No. The TSEZ Authority is developing its licensing regime to grant licenses for logistics and industrial activities, and has completed the strategic environmental impact assessment and detailed design for all infrastructure. The master plan for the industrial and logistics site next to Tripoli Port is completed and awaits Cabinet approval.

On March 29, , the Cabinet approved expanding the geographical area of the TSEZ to include an additional 75, square meters of the Rachid Karami Fair in Tripoli and to establish a knowledge-innovation center. The Authority has completed the architectural concept for the Rachid Karami zone for knowledge and innovation center and will start with the Master Plan this year. The government mandates local employment, and the Ministry of Labor publishes annually a list of jobs restricted to Lebanese nationals.

Foreign investors enjoy the same incentives as local investors. Foreigners doing business in Lebanon through a company, factory, or office must hold work and residency permits. There are no discriminatory or excessively onerous visa, residence, or work permit requirements. Registration with a chamber of commerce is required to import and handle a limited number of products that are subject to control requirements for safety reasons.

Products with such special import requirements constitute less than one percent of total tradable goods. Registration with a chamber of commerce is required to ensure that established facilities meet safety, handling, and storage requirements. Lebanon does not follow any forced localization policy and does not require foreign IT providers to turn over source code or provide access to surveillance. The right to private ownership is respected in Lebanon. The concept of a mortgage exists and secured interests in property, both movable and real, are recognized and enforced.

Over 20 percent of land, mostly in rural and remote areas, does not have clear title. The government is undertaking efforts to identify property owners and register land titles. IPR enforcement is weak. The understanding of IPR within the Lebanese judiciary has improved somewhat in recent years but gaps remain with regards to the negative economic impact that IPR violations have on the economy. Existing IPR laws cover copyright, patent, trademarks, and geographical elements.

Copyright registration in Lebanon is not mandatory, and copyright protection is granted without the need for registration. This service simplified the registration process and registrations of trademarks now take place online. Due to the complexity of copyrights and patents, registration is still accepted in person at the MoET, and payment must also take place in person. The switch from a deposit system to an objection system for trademarks also remains stalled due to the need for parliamentary approval.

However, the MoET noted that it implements the objection system in practice. Ratification documents have not yet been deposited with WIPO, however, since this would also require amendments to the Copyright Law. A modern TRIPS-compatible Patent Law, approved in , provides general protection for semiconductor chip layout designs and plant varieties. Data protection and undisclosed information fall under Article 47 of the Patent Law, but current provisions for pharmaceutical registration are subject to interpretation.

Generic manufacturers in Lebanon are not prohibited from using original data e. Food and Drug Administration website to register competing products that are identical to original products. Decree No. There are no current plans to amend the Patent Law. On patent registrations, the Lebanese legal regime does not require examination for novelty, utility, and innovation.

Simple patent deposit is required at the MoET, where the application is examined only for conformity with general laws and ethics. Lebanese Customs also plays a direct role in IPR enforcement by seizing counterfeits and an indirect role as part of its efforts to combat smuggling.

The U. The sale and distribution of pirated, counterfeit, and copycat products continued across Lebanon, in commercial establishments and through street vendors. This included leather goods, apparel and luxury items, fast-moving consumer goods FMCGs , software, optical media, and pharmaceuticals.

Mehravari trade. There are no restrictions on portfolio investment, and foreign investors may invest in Lebanese equities and fixed income certificates. There are de facto restrictions on outbound payments and transfers for current international transactions, but these have yet to be codified into law.

Although in April , the Central Bank of Lebanon required money transfer services such as Western Union and MoneyGram to disburse inbound transfers in local currency, the Central Bank later allowed them to disburse in U. The Banking Control Commission of Lebanon BCCL has a department which oversees and conducts on-site and off-site audits of money exchange institutions and electronic money transfer firms operating in Lebanon using a risk-based supervision approach.

Credit is allocated on market terms, and foreign investors may obtain credit facilities on the local market. However, as Lebanon entered its economic crisis in the fall of and defaulted on its dollar-denominated debt in March , local and international credit is virtually nonexistent. Banks have substantially reduced retail loans, such as housing, consumer, or personal loans, as well as have reduced heavily international limits of credit and debit cards, and maintains commercial loans mainly to agriculture, industrial and trade sectors for SMEs and large corporates.

For an investor to acquire more than five percent of shares of any listed bank requires prior approval from the Central Bank. Currently, the BSE lists six commercial banks, four companies including Solidere — one of the largest publicly held companies in the region — and eight sovereign Eurobond issues all in U.

However, the BSE suffers from a lack of liquidity and low trading volumes in the absence of significant institutional and foreign investors and had an annual trading volume of only 3. Weak market turnover discourages investors from committing funds to the market and discourages issuers from seeking listings on the BSE. Traditional businesses owned by commercially powerful families dominate most sectors. The government is trying to improve the transparency of such firms to help solidify an emerging capital market for company shares.

More information can be found on: www. Lebanon hosts the headquarters of the Arab Stock Exchanges. Banks are no longer serving their core functions: making productive loans or allowing those with dollar deposits to withdraw them. Clients cannot transfer money overseas. Lebanon has yet to adopt formal capital controls legislation, but most economic analysts believe such a law is necessary to preserve what limited foreign currency is left in the country and provide a level playing field to all Lebanese.

At the behest of the Central Bank, in April , banks began providing Lebanese lira at rates higher than the official pegged rate to customers with dollar-denominated accounts, but less than 60 percent of the market value of USD banknotes. Lebanon relied on dollar inflows from abroad to finance imports and public spending and to maintain the Lebanese lira-to-USD peg, in place since Those dollars were deposited in Lebanese banks, which in turn lent them to the state in the form of deposits at the Central Bank or Lebanese debt instruments.

Nearly 70 percent of bank assets are tied to the sovereign in those two forms. In , as dollar inflows dried up and banking sector assets were tied to long-term deposits at the Central Bank and illiquid debt instruments, banks had trouble meeting their dollar obligations to clients, planting the seeds of the current crisis. Financial experts estimated that 40 percent of loans from Lebanese banks were non-performing in December Type of Economy: Upper-middle-income economy.

It is heavily dependent on foreign trade for importing consumer goods and raw materials; high debt ratio. Albania Algeria Angola Argentina. Armenia Australia Austria Bahrain. Bangladesh Belgium Benin Bosnia-Herzegovina. Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso. Cameroon Canada Chile China. Colombia Congo Croatia Cyprus. Czech Republic Denmark Egypt Estonia. Finland France.

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Qatar Romania. Thailand Togo Tunisia Turkey U. E United Kingdom. United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam. Invest Economic and political overview Business environment Invest. Foreign Direct Investment Lebanon has traditionally been open to foreign direct investment, although recent political instability, macroeconomic imbalances and a foreign currency crisis have dampened the country's attractiveness.

What to consider if you invest in Lebanon Strong Points With its liberal economy, Lebanon has attracted foreign investors for many years. Advantages for FDI in Lebanon include: The country can represent a gateway to other countries in the Middle East and to many emerging economies thanks to its geographical location The relatively westernised workforce is highly skilled Few restrictions exist for investment and there are still important investment opportunities in the fields of reconstruction of basic and productive infrastructure, construction and supermarkets The large diaspora there are more Lebanese outside the country than inside guarantees recurrent financial flows to the country, thereby injecting liquidity into the national economy The discovery of offshore natural gas deposits should enable the country to reduce its energy dependence and offer numerous opportunities for related sectors.

Government Measures to Motivate or Restrict FDI Lebanese business law, which is very liberal in terms of business freedom, is in principle very open to all traditional forms of investment. This agency, which is under the direct authority of the Prime Minister, grants numerous tax exemptions, or offers exceptional regimes, as long as the investment is in defined sectors of activity, in named zones and start from a set investment amount. Likewise, the agency has the power to issue the necessary licenses and permits.

Investment Opportunities The Key Sectors of the National Economy ICT, healthcare, safety and security, waste management, and franchising have historically attracted foreign investments. For detailed information about the incentives available for specific sectors, consult the "Sectors in Focus" section on the portal of the Investment Development Authority of Lebanon IDAL.

High Potential Sectors The most attractive sector is the energy sector, particularly for power production, renewable energies, and oil and gas exploration.

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Lebanon was unable to attract significant foreign aid to help it rebuild from both the long civil war —89 and the Israeli occupation of the south — In addition, the delicate social balance and the near- dissolution of central government institutions during the civil war handicapped the state as it sought to capture revenues to fund the recovery effort.

Economic performance was sluggish in and zero growth in , and estimates between 1. However, many Lebanese expatriates have been able to return to the country due to the negative financial situations they are facing abroad, due to the global economic crisis. Also, more job opportunities are attracting more Lebanese youths for a chance to return and work in Lebanon, and also a benefit for the Lebanese living in the country, graduating from universities.

The government also has maintained a firm commitment to the Lebanese pound, which has been pegged to the dollar since September In late , the government substantially reduced customs duties, adopted export promotion schemes for agriculture, decreased social security fees and restrictions on investment in real estate by foreigners, and adopted an open-skies policy, with positive effects on trade in In , the government turned its focus to fiscal measures, Increasing gasoline taxes, reducing expenditures, and approving a value-added-tax that became effective in February Slow money growth and dollarization of deposits have hampered the ability of commercial banks to finance the government, leaving more of the burden to the central bank.

This monetization of the fiscal deficit has put enormous pressure on central bank reserves, mitigated only slightly with the issuance of new Eurobonds over the past 2 years. The central bank has maintained a stable currency by intervening directly in the market, as well as low inflation, and succeeded in maintaining investors' confidence in debt.

For , the government has put primary emphasis on privatization, initially in the telecom sector and electricity, with continued planning for sales of the state airline, Beirut port, and water utilities. The government has pledged to apply the proceeds of sales to reducing the public debt and the budget deficit. In addition, it projects that privatization will bring new savings as government payrolls are pared, interest rates decline, and private sector growth and foreign investment are stimulated.

The government also is tackling the daunting task of administrative reform, aiming to bring in qualified technocrats to address ambitious economic programs, and reviewing further savings that can be realized through reforms of the income tax system. The Lebanese Government faces major challenges in order to meet the requirements of a fiscal adjustment program focusing on tax reforms and modernization, expenditure rationalization, privatization, and improved debt management.

The U. More than offices representing U. Since the lifting of the passport restriction in see below , a number of large U. Mexico has also many enterprises run by ethnic Lebanese, such as Carlos Slim 's Telmex. Solidere shares are the most actively traded in the Beirut Stock Exchange. Most unions went ahead with the strike except the general worker's union. Others criticized the raises altogether citing that it would burden small business that might end up closing altogether; those critics were mainly opposition politicians.

The following table shows the main economic indicators in — The annual unemployment rate is extracted from the World Bank , although the International Monetary Fund find them unreliable. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Economy of the country. Beirut Central District. Fiscal year. Inflation CPI.

Population below poverty line. Gini coefficient. Human Development Index. Ease-of-doing-business rank. United Arab Emirates FDI stock. Current account. Gross external debt. Public debt. Budget balance. Credit rating. See also: History of Lebanon. Main article: Corruption in Lebanon. Lebanon portal Economics portal. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 29 September World Bank. Retrieved 1 April Central Intelligence Agency.

Retrieved 6 February Retrieved 28 April Retrieved 19 October Retrieved 11 December Retrieved 25 December Retrieved 23 January The Observatory of Economic Complexity. Retrieved 19 June Retrieved 9 March Retrieved 22 November Financial Times. Retrieved 17 February Retrieved 29 January Retrieved 14 October Retrieved 17 January USA Today.

Retrieved 22 August The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 31 January Retrieved 31 December Archived from the original PDF on 4 June Center for the Study of the Built Environment. Archived from the original on 20 January Retrieved 31 October Bank Audi. Archived from the original PDF on 23 November Lebanese Ministry of Finance. Archived from the original PDF on 8 August Mayton 28 September Cyprus News. Archived from the original on 28 September Archived from the original on 20 October BBC News.

Retrieved 28 January The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 25 May Archived from the original on 13 June Retrieved 20 April Archived from the original on 14 January Retrieved 25 July Westport News. Retrieved 18 October Associated Press. National Post, a division of Postmedia Network Inc. Bloomberg News. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 19 September Retrieved 21 December Lira Rate. Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 18 April Al Jazeera.

The Daily Star. Asharq Al-Awsat. Archived from the original on 8 July That's an error". AlKhaleej Today. The Economist. ISSN Retrieved 4 October Retrieved 19 July Al Arabiya. When the stock market fluctuates and at times the volatility in one market can affect all the other markets around the globe, investment in property is often considered as a safe haven. Many investors seek safe havens in uncertain markets. Individuals working for property management services in Lebanon have noted that the recent crises which had seen the United States getting into recession and struggling to put its financial institutions in order, the crises affecting the European Union with bailouts to many countries and the recessions in the United Kingdom did not affect Lebanon house prices.

Investing in real estate and particularly in Lebanon real estate is also advantageous for many other reasons. On average, with inflation the rent value of properties often increases while mortgage payments remain steady. This implies that there is an increase in revenue without any increase in expenses.

The appreciation of rental value also provides perfect opportunities for selling a property and reinvestment for higher property values. Such is the mechanism for real estate investment return. In many some cases it is possible to purchase a property at a lower value than its market price.

This often can happen because a property can be put for sale for various reasons. Some areas may be undergoing redevelopment. Property management services in Lebanon can often provide sound advice on redevelopment opportunities. Lebanon real estate offers the perfect opportunity for investment. The country is registering positive economic growth.

In many occasions it provides a good safe haven from fluctuation in the global stock market. The growth in tourism and the specific location near the Meditarranean all influences great ROI on Lebanon house prices. The Lebanese real estate market offers fantastic apartments and vilas for sale. With the assistance of real estate agents in Lebanon and property appraisal services in Lebanon , it is possible to make great real estate investment in Lebanon that offers fantastic return on investment.

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Constructing Resilience: The Political Economy of Real Estate Investment in Lebanon

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