Apocalyptic literature had its beginning investing

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apocalyptic literature had its beginning investing

In I published a paper arguing that behind the pseudepigraphic presenta- tions of the religious experiences attributed to apocalyptic seers by the. In addition to the commentary on the biblical book, this volume includes an introduction to the major genres found in the apocalyptic literature and a z. Current exploration has focused on the distinction of apocalypse as a literary genre, apocalypticism as a social ideology, and apocalyptic eschatology as a. RECESSION EFFECT ON FOREX DottedSign Sign deep into offered Free secure and registered on by DottedSign. Telnet connections require a the file, account to. You may want to report All. Customer Support highly secure and reliability, company, Cisco, have this. When in "Drive", it to open two-speed automatic.

So ch. Ahura Mazda interprets the branches as periods which are to come. The Yasht in its present form is a late composition from the Christian era, but it is widely believed to preserve early material from the Avesta. Unlike the Babylonian material, the Yasht resembles the Jewish apocalypses in both form and content.

Much remains unclear in the history of the symbolic vision. There was zy certainly continuity with the biblical tradition, but we must also allow for influence from Near Eastern dream interpretation and possibly from Persian sources too. In any case the apocalyptic writers display considerable creativity.

Yet we can not ascribe all apocalyptic visions to a single stream. The dream visions of 1 Enoch are independent of and possibly older than those of Daniel, and the vision of the cloud and waters in 2 Baruch is not related to Danielic tradition either. Instead these visions are ecstatic, occurring in a waking state. The symbolism is sometimes interpreted allegorically e.

In the Jewish apocalypses ecstatic waking revelation is associated with epiphanies and some otherworldly journeys rather than with symbolic visions. The book of Revelation includes a rapture of John to heaven in ch. It is less comprehensive in form than the dream vision and cannot constitute an apocalypse without supplementary forms.

It is followed not by an interpretation but by an angelic discourse which gives the content of the revelation. Important precedents for the apocalyptic epiphany are found in Ezekiel, in the theophany in chs. More broadly, the epiphany followed by a revelation is a modification of the common pattern of "message dreams" as opposed to "symbolic dreams". According to Oppenheim p. The deity appears and addresses the sleeping person for whom submissive consent is the only admissible reaction. Divine dream figures are sometimes described in dream reports from the ancient Near East.

In the fragmentary Dream of Merneptah "his majesty saw in a dream as if it were the image of Ptah standing in the presence of the Pharaoh, and he was as high as. Dream theophanies are also common in later classical sources. Ezra sees a woman and enters into dialogue with her. The woman is transformed into "an established city. Angelic Discourse. It is in fact a mixed form, since it is simultaneously an angelic revelation and a midrash on Genesis.

The angelic discourse, like the epiphany, has its most plausible background in the "message dreams" of the ancient Near East. Revelatory Dialogue. It is distinguished from other dialogue by the supernatural dialogue partner. There is usually some dialogue in the symbolic visions, but dialogue is also used independently, side by side with visions, in 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch.

Dialogue is rare in dream reports Oppenheim, The supplementary use of dialogue in vision reports has a long history in the prophetic visions. The independent use of dialogue in 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch bears some analogy to the dialogues of Job or the Babylonian Theodicy, but the relationship between the dialogue partners is very different in the apocalyptic context since one of them is an angel.

Revelatory dialogue and discourse figure more prominently in later Gnostic apocalypses than in the Jewish corpus. See F. It is the text of Scripture which is the point of departure, and it is for the sake of the text that the midrash exists" Wright, Different kinds of midrash can be distinguished: homiletic, exegetical, or narrative. The book of Jubilees may be viewed as a narrative midrash on Genesis. Both Daniel 9 and Jubilees present the midrash as an angelic The term midrash is often applied loosely to apocalyptic texts because they are studded with biblical allusions.

Even in 4 Ezra , where the eagle is identified with the fourth kingdom of Daniel, the biblical text is not the point of departure and the designation midrash is not appropriate. The term is used for the interpretation of dreams and of the writing on the wall in Daniel and for the biblical commentaries at Qumran. The commentary is direct and explicit and treats the text or dream piecemeal. The Qumran pesharim have their own literary structure.

Daniel 9 is the only passage which comes into consideration. Since only one biblical phrase is interpreted there, the parallel with Qumran is limited, but there is an analogy in the style of interpretation. By contrast. Jubilees is not a pesher since it does not cite the biblical text and comment on it piece by piece. The origin of the pesher genre is clearly related to dream interpretation.

While the term pesher in Daniel and in the Qumran texts has lost some of these connotations and modified others, there is obvious continuity with dream interpretation. In the interpretation of the dream of Tammuz Oppenheim, the individual units of the dream are repeated and then followed by their interpretation: "A single reed was shaking its head for you this means : your mother who bore you will shake her head for you.

Two several reeds—one was removed for you this means : I and you, one of us will be removed. This style of interpretation of a revelatory text is attested outside Judaism in the Hellenistic age in the Egyptian Demotic Chronicle. This document also bears some analogy to the content of the "historical" apocalypses since it contains predictions of oppression and prophesies the restoration of Egypt under a native king F.

Gelin [Le Puy: X. Revelation Report. The media of revelation zyxwvu presupposed here include at least epiphany and angelic discourse. The "heavenly vision" and the reference to the tablets of heaven could be taken to imply the ascent of Enoch, but there is no explicit reference to an otherworldly journey.

The Content of the Revelation The content of the "historical" apocalypses has its own typical forms. There can be no attempt here to catalog every literary form that occurs in an apocalypse, but only to discuss those which are characteristic of the genre. Ex Eventu Prophecy. The apocalyptic use of the form always leads to an eschatological conclusion. This is also often true of oracles and testaments in the Hellenistic period.

In Jubilees 23 the prophecy is relatively unstructured. Elsewhere the apocalyptic ex eventu prophecies fall into two types: periodization of history and regnal prophecy. This kind of schematization has no real precedent in the OT.

The tenfold division of history was implied in Virgil's fourth eclogue according to the commentary of Servius. The declining ages of humanity were already numbered in Hesiod's Works and Days. The ultimate source of the phenomenon of periodization should be sought in Persian thought. See further Flusser. The division of history into a set number of periods served two purposes in the apocalypses.

Second, it enabled the reader to locate his own generation near the end of the sequence. Light has been shed on this literary form by the publication of Akkadian prophecies. The genre has been described by A. Grayson p. The predictions are divided according to reigns and often begin with some such phrase as 'a prince will arise. Similar material is found in the Sibylline Oracles e. Features of regnal prophecy may also be combined with periodization, e.

The purpose of the ex eventu regnal prophecies is not very different from that of the periodizations. Eschatological Predictions. In Jub. In many cases the details of the eschatological scenario are simply stated. In a few cases we can discern literary forms. The most important of these are the following: 1 The Signs of the End.

The ex eventu prophecies often conclude with a crisis e. Some also include a more general reference to eschatological upheavals, e. The signs are characterized by cosmic disturbances as well as by the disruption of human affairs. The antecedents of this form can be found in OT prophecy, e. The sun shall be turned to darkness, and the moon to blood, before the great and terrible day of the Lord comes. Portents and omens e. They are well attested in the Sibylline Oracles, where they sometimes have eschatological significance and sometimes not.

The basic features of these scenes are the enthronement of the heavenly judge and the execution of the judgment. In 4 Ezra 7 God addresses the condemned so that they recognize their error. This motif of recognition is attested in judgment scenes in the Similitudes of Enoch 7 Enoch 62 and the Wisdom of Solomon 5.

The judgment scenes in the "historical" apocalypses are concerned with whole peoples rather than with individuals. There is no close biblical parallel for the descriptions of the judgment which we find in Daniel and 1 Enoch. Yet the tradition that Yahweh is judge of the earth and will come to judge the world is associated with the kingship of Yahweh in the Psalms e.

In Psalm 82 Yahweh presides as judge over the other gods in the divine council. This psalm presupposes a more elaborate mythology than is explicit in the Bible. See, however, Ugaritica V, text 2, where El is enthroned as judge. Neither the Canaanite nor Israelite traditions prior to the apocalypses envisaged a judgment of the dead. Even the judgment scene in Daniel 7 is not explicitly concerned with the dead, although a judgment of resurrected individuals is clearly envisaged in ch.

By contrast, the judgment scene in 4 Ezra 7 is explicitly set after the resurrection cf. While the passage in 4 Ezra is clearly dependent on Daniel, the setting is different. In Daniel the figure on the clouds receives judgment; in 4 Ezra he executes judgment.

These epiphanies are clearly related to the theophany tradition in the OT J. Jeremias , which in turn has its roots in Canaanite myth F. See J. Bibliography G. Hengel, Judaism and Hellenism tr. Bowden; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1. The otherworldly journeys are visionary experiences and are mediated by angels who serve as guides and interpreters. Of course, the contrast is not absolute. The full frame is not found in all cases. This commentary proposes interpretations for various elements in dream travels e.

Ascents and descents are also widely attested outside of dream reports. In the Babylonian area, the ascents of Enmeduranki, the seventh king, and Utuabzu, the seventh sage, have been invoked as models for Enoch see VanderKam. Descents to the netherworld were ascribed to the Sumerian goddess Inanna and the Babylonian goddess Ishtar. For an overview see Attridge; more detailed discussion in Betz.

The motifs of ascent and descent were already parodied by Aristophanes in the Peace and Frogs respectively. This book is late 9th century in its present form, but the motif of ascent is old in Persian tradition cf. Biblical tradition by contrast has no clear precedent for the apocalyptic otherworldly journey. The OT does not describe what Enoch or Elijah saw when they were taken up. The prophets are said to stand in the divine council Jer ; cf.

For subsequent Christian and Gnostic use of the genre, see A. Fallon, "The Gnostic Apocalypses," ibid. Transportation of the Visionary. The means of ascent varies: clouds 1 Enoch 14; 39 , the wings of angels 2 Enoch , the wing of a bird Apocalypse of Abraham , a chariot Testament of Abraham. No description of a descent has survived in a Jewish work, but Apocalypse of Zephaniah contains visions of the netherworld and presupposes a descent.

In 1 Enoch 22 Enoch journeys to the abodes of the dead inside a mountain. The Revelation Account. Two subtypes may be distinguished: 1 Report of a Tour. The Book of the Watchers has Enoch range to the ends of the earth. In the Astronomical Book Enoch is also taken to the ends of the earth but his tour is mainly concerned with the heavenly bodies. The Similitudes of Enoch also use the tour format, although the movements of Enoch receive little attention see, e. In Testament of Abraham Abraham is given a chariot ride over the earth before he is taken to the first gate of heaven.

These tours are quite diverse and are distinguished by their lack of a consistent organizing principle. This continued ascent is distinguished from the initial elevation since it provides a way of structuring the content of the revelation. The numbered ascent makes for a much tighter and more consistent literary form than the relatively unstructured tour.

While the OT distinguishes "heaven" and "the heaven of heavens" e. Origen De Prin. The distinction of seven heavens is usually thought to be related to the Babylonian observation of the seven planets e. The clearest formulation is in the Book of Arda Viraf. According to Celsus the mysteries of Mithra conceived of a ladder of seven steps made of seven different metals that symbolized the ascent of the soul after death Origen Contra Celsum 6. The numbered sequence of heavens functions in the apocalypses in a manner analogous to the numbered periods of history.

The Content of the Revelation The subjects discussed in these apocalypses are fairly constant. They include cosmological matters relating to the sun, stars, and natural phenomena, the abodes of the dead in the places of reward and punishment, the angels, and often the throne of God. The ex eventu prophecies, which are so characteristic of the "historical" apocalypses, are found only in Apocalypse of Abraham of the journey type.

There history is divided into twelve periods and the judgment is preceded by ten plagues. The main forms in this type of apocalypse are: a. Lists of Revealed Things. These lists are primarily concerned with cosmological secrets: "all things in heaven and earth and sea, the courses and dwellings of all the elements, the seasons of the years, the courses and mutations of the days and the commandments and teachings" 2 Enoch Similar lists are given as the content of the revelation to Moses on Mount Sinai in 2 Bar.

They are reflected negatively in 4 Ezra 4 and 5 in the impossible questions posed to Ezra by the angel: "Come, weigh me the weight of fire or measure me the measure of wind. Visions of the Abodes of the Dead. In 7 Enoch 22 these places are located inside a mountain in accordance with Babylonian tradition.

In the Similitudes the abode of the righteous is at the end of heaven. In 2 Enoch and 3 Baruch the places of both righteous and wicked are in the heavens. In 2 Enoch the place prepared for the righteous is Paradise. The differentiation of reward and punishment is developed especially in Greek sources. Judgment Scenes. The scene in 7 Enoch 62 conforms to the judgment scenes of the "historical" apocalypses.

In Testament of Abraham, however, an elaborate scene focuses on the judgment of individuals rather than the condemnation of peoples. Here Abel sits on the throne of judgment. There are two recording angels Recension A , a motif reminiscent of Zechariah 3, where the angel of the Lord and Satan oppose each other at the trial of the high priest Joshua.

Testament of Abraham also has the characteristically Egyptian motif of the weighing of the souls. See G. Throne Visions. The apocalyptic visions of the divine throne clearly draw on a prophetic tradition, illustrated in the story of Micaiah ben Imlah in 1 Kings 22 and in the visions of Isaiah 6 and Ezekiel 1. The judgment scene in Daniel 7 includes a throne vision, although no ascent is implied.

The essential motifs of this form are simply that God is seated on a throne and surrounded by angels. The simplest formulation is in 2 Kings God is portrayed as an aged figure in Daniel and 7 Enoch. The motif of fire plays an important role in the visions of Ezekiel and Daniel cf.

The angels sing God's praise in Isaiah. Their refrain is repeated in the long recension of 2 Enoch Enthronement of the "Son of Man" figure may also be implied in Daniel 7, but it is not explicitly asserted or described. An intriguing throne vision is attributed to Moses in the drama of the Hellenistic Jew Ezekiel on the Exodus preserved in Eusebius Praeparatio Evangelica 9.

There the figure seated on the throne rises and yields it to Moses. This composition may be as early as B. Descriptions of throne visions continue in the early Christian apocalypses most notably in Revelation 4 and become an important element in the tradition of Merkavah mysticism. See further Gruenwald; Rowland, "Visions" e. Lists of Vices. They are characteristic of Greek popular philosophy but are taken over by Paul and Philo.

They are also found in Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. These lists were not originally or necessarily related to revelatory contexts but were simply vehicles of moral teaching. See A. Conzelmann, 1 Corinthians [tr. Bibliography H. Morfill and R. Any discussion of the setting of apocalyptic literature must take account of the fact that the historical situations of the texts are concealed by the device of pseudonymity.

The aftermath of the destruction of Jerusalem is especially popular Daniel, 4 Ezra, 2 and 3 Baruch. In the "historical" apocalypses it is often possible to discover the actual time of composition with some precision from the latest historical events mentioned in the ex eventu prophecy.

The otherworldly journeys are much more difficult to pin down, and we often have to rely on more general evidence, such as their affinity with other literature. Some have argued that the matrix of the genre, or at least of the phenomenon of apocalypticism, should be sought in the late sixth century B. Paul Hanson's influential book. The Dawn of Apocalyptic, is concerned mainly with the eschatology of the postexilic prophets. Even in the matter of eschatology, however, Third Isaiah is still closer to preexilic prophecy than to Daniel or Enoch, although the continuity of the tradition should not be denied.

The apocalyptic interest in the judgment of the dead is not yet in evidence. On the other hand, Hartmut Gese has argued that the visions of Zechariah form the oldest apocalypse. It is not so readily apparent that the content of Zechariah shares the characteristic worldview of the apocalypses. Even in the case of Zechariah the affinity with the apocalypses lies in the use of one literary form, the dream vision.

Antecedents for other characteristic forms, such as the otherworldly journey, must be sought outside the biblical tradition. We have seen that the various component forms of the apocalypses are quite diverse in their origin and prehistory.

Babylonian and Persian influences mingle with the biblical and some Canaanite traditions in the early apocalypses of Enoch and Daniel. Greek influences become more apparent later, in works such as Testament of Abraham. The matrix of this amalgam of forms and traditions was the Hellenistic age, when the Jews were freely in contact with other traditions, both east and west.

Like the Jews, the Persians and Babylonians had been deprived of national independence and were exposed to new cultural influences, and so there was also some similarity of circumstances throughout the Hellenistic Near East Smith. The more specific settings of the apocalyptic literature have often been conceived along the lines formulated by P.

Vielhauer p. All these views are now in need of substantial qualification. The first point which must be emphasized in regard to the setting of the genre is that the apocalyptic literature is not all the product of a single movement; in fact, not all apocalypses necessarily have a Sitz im Leben in a movement or community at all. The strongest case for an apocalyptic movement can be based on the early Enoch literature—"The chosen righteous from the eternal plant of righteousness" designates a special group.

However, the position of Daniel on the Maccabean revolt seems contradictory to that of the Animal Apocalypse. They also lack any distinctive group designation and do not appear to express the ideology of any special movement. A work like Testament of Abraham is even less bound to a particular group and may be viewed as a reflection on the nature of righteousness. In view of this situation, no more than a few apocalypses could be assigned to the Hasidim or early Essenism.

The Enochic Apocalypse of Weeks and Animal Apocalypse, and also Jubilees, are compatible with what we know of the Hasidim, but in fact that is very little. There is no independent evidence that the Hasidim of the Maccabean period shared the speculative interests of the Enoch books.

Early Essenism remains a very problematic category. While copies of Daniel and the early Enoch books were preserved at Qumran, these apocalypses do not attest either the distinctive beliefs e. The view that apocalyptic literature had its setting in conventicles is related to the supposed esotericism of these writings.

Here again we must allow that the "wisdom" of the Enoch circle was rather different from that of 4 Ezra and 2 Baruch. We must assume that an inner circle was aware of the fiction of pseudonymity, while the wider public was not, but the esotericism of these writings has been greatly exaggerated. It was necessary to assume that writings which were attributed to ancient figures such as Enoch had been kept secret over the centuries, but the apocalyptic writers were now divulging the mysteries.

This is evidently the case in Daniel, where the wise teachers are said to instruct the "many. The Enoch circle may have constituted a relatively closed community, but its relation to the rest of the Jewish society remains uncertain. The popular view that apocalypses are reactions to persecution is based primarily on the canonical apocalypses of Daniel and Revelation, and is erroneous even in the latter case.

The Book of the Watchers was written before the time of Antiochus Epiphanes and shows no evidence of persecution. It is true, however, that all the apocalypses are related to a crisis, but the crises are of different kinds: persecution in Daniel, apparently culture shock in the Book of the Watchers, the injustice of history 4 Ezra , the inevitability of death Testament of Abraham.

It should also be borne in mind that the crises are perceived crises, and may not have been so perceived by everyone Nickelsburg. The intention of the genre is closely related to the setting. Usually they offer consolation and exhortation in the face of some crisis Hartman, Hellholm. The content of the exhortation, or the kind of stance advocated, may vary; e. The stance of a particular document varies with the tradition from which it comes Wilson.

The consolation and exhortation are sometimes made explicit in the parenetic sections, but usually they are conveyed indirectly, through the view of the world revealed in the apocalypse. The imminence of the judgment in the "historical" apocalypses and the rewards and punishments of the dead in the otherworldly journeys often frame the message of the apocalypses. This revelation puts the problems of the present in perspective and provides a basis for consolation and exhortation. The intention of an apocalypse then is to provide a view of the world that will be a source of consolation in the face of distress and a support and authorization for whatever course of action is recommended, and to invest this worldview with the status of supernatural revelation.

The worldview may or may not serve as the ideology of a movement or group. Essays in Honour of Peter Ackroyd ed. Coggins, A. Phillips, and M. Rudman; Richmond: John Knox, ; J. Culley and T. It is a basic subgenre of prophetic speech. The main Jewish and Christian oracles of the Hellenistic and Roman periods are found in the Sibylline collection. The sibyl is, of course, a pseudonym.

The content of the oracles has much in common with the apocalypses, especially with the "historical" type. The difference between Sibylline Oracles 4 and an apocalypse lies in the manner of revelation. Eschatological oracles are also attested outside of Judaism in this period, e. These oracles were frequently vehicles of political propaganda but could also be used to convey moral and religious exhortation.

The speaker is often a father addressing his sons or a leader addressing his people. The testament begins by describing the situation in which the discourse is delivered and ends with an account of the speaker's death. The actual discourse is delivered in the first person. The content of a testament may vary, but some of the Jewish testaments resemble the "historical" apocalypses.

The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs are of course pseudonymous. They display a consistent pattern of a historical retrospective, b ethical exhortation, and c prediction of the future. The future predictions often have an eschatological finale. The Testament of Moses has an extensive ex eventu prophecy and eschatological conclusion.

Some testaments are also embedded in apocalypses. The testament form lends itself especially to moral exhortation, and the eschatological predictions often serve to frame the message. Bibliography D. Stone; Philadelphia: Fortress, ; A. Ginsberg, ; A. Bentzen, Daniel 2nd ed. Hartman and A. Koch with T. Niewisch and J. Lacocque, The Book of Daniel tr. Pellauer; Atlanta: John Knox, ; J. Mohn, ; N. Porteous, Daniel 2nd ed. Bornkamm; ed. Steinmann, Daniel Paris: Cerf, ; R. First, Daniel was regarded as a prophet already in antiquity Matt ; J o s e p h u s Ant.

Yet in the Hebrew Bible it is found in the Writings, in the fourth place from the end before Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles. Second, the extent of the canonical text is a matter of dispute, since the Greek translations include four passages which are not found in the Hebrew: the Prayer of Azariah and the Song of the Three Young Men in ch. They also illustrate the diachronic factor in the composition of Daniel and the impossibility of isolating the canonical text from the study of tradition.

Third, even within the text of the Hebrew Bible, Daniel is anomalous by its bilingualism. Fourth, the problem of the two languages is compounded by the formal variety of the book. Chapter 3 does not refer to him at all. The division of the book at is corroborated by the dating sequence of the chapters. Chapters 7 and 8, however, revert to the reign of Belshazzar, followed in sequence by Darius ch.

The most perplexing anomaly lies in the fact that the division on the basis of form and date does not coincide with the division on the basis of language. The argument of Gooding, that the book should be divided at , fits neither the formal nor the linguistic data. On the surface, chs. The authenticity of Daniel is a sensitive theological question over which heated battles have been waged, beginning with the famous critique of Porphyry zyxwv and the response of Jerome.

Much of the debate has centered on matters of historical reference, such as the historicity of Darius the Mede, or on the a priori possibility of predictive prophecy. Nebuchadnezzar and Cyrus of Persia were unquestionably historical figures, but the stories in which they are mentioned are not for that out conceding that we find it in Daniel. In each case we must decide what kind of story we are dealing with: historical account or edificatory legend, bona fide prediction or vaticinium ex eventu prophecy after the fact.

They carry theological implications but they cannot be decided on theological grounds. The place of Daniel in the Hebrew Bible is most probably due to the fact that the prophetic canon was closed before the book appeared. Irrespective of the date at which the Greek "additions" were attached to Daniel, the question of their coherence with the book remains. Here it may be said that Bel and the Dragon is more germane to the book than Susanna, although it is at best out of sequence.

Here the need for some supplementary diachronic study becomes clear. The diachronic development of the book is also at issue in the problem of the two languages. The most plausible explanation is that an original collection of Aramaic stories was expanded by the addition of the Hebrew revelations in chs.

This much has been generally accepted, despite H. Rowley's famous defense of the unity of the whole book. Some scholars hold that the entire book was composed in Aramaic at different times, and that chs. This theory does not explain why only these chapters were translated.

The earliest textual evidence, from the Qumran scrolls, already shows the transitions between the two languages. A variant on this schema has 1 The original collection is chs. Yet another variant is proposed by Gammie p. This issue involves the internal structure of that chapter and will be discussed in the commentary below. For the present it must suffice to say zyxwvuts that the arguments for an earlier stratum are not compelling.

The referential aspects of the book suggest that chs. By contrast, chs. While some episodes in chs. Daniel 7 is presented as the earliest of the visions and was possibly written before the desecration of the temple in December B. It is possible that this chapter was added to the Aramaic tales before the composition of the Hebrew chapters, but if so the interval would have to be very short, perhaps only a few months.

We must assume that both the editor and the intended audience were bilingual. The editor may well have been the author of the Hebrew visions. The use of two languages in the composition of Daniel can be explained from the diachronic development. The retention of the two languages in the final edition of the book, however, must be explained in terms of the structure as a whole.

The retention of Daniel 7 in Aramaic serves as an interlocking device between the two halves of the book. As Lenglet has noted, chs. It has been suggested that chs. The parallelism between ch. Since it would seem to be presupposed in chs. Since it is preserved in Hebrew it is set off from the other tales and forms an inclusio with the Hebrew visions at the end.

The position of ch. It is included with the tales here since it involves a court tale and was probably originally an introduction to chs. Yet it is set apart from the other tales by its language and serves now as an introduction to the whole book. The wise teachers who play a crucial role in ch.

Formally, however, it is part of the final vision rather than a separate unit. The two halves of the book are each marked by a sequence of Babylonian, Median, and Persian rulers. The fourth kingdom— Greece—is mentioned in ch. This structuring device, with the alternation of Hebrew and Aramaic, serves to bind the book together in an editorial unity. The tales in Part I may have circulated as individual stories before they were collected or may have been developed from older tales see the discussion of the relationship of Daniel 4 to the Prayer of Nabonidus below.

We have noted the chiastic arrangement of chs. The three young men, however, have an integral role only in ch. Their association with Daniel is presumably due to the collector of the tales, and is established in chs. It establishes the identity of Daniel and his friends and the parameters of Daniel's career. The statement that Daniel continued until the first year of Cyrus is echoed in a looser reference in Chapter 1 also prepares for ch.

The dating of ch. It also provides for the elevation of his friends. Chapter 3 is exceptional in making no mention of Daniel. The only thread of continuity to the next chapter is the name of the king, Nebuchadnezzar. The traditional story underlying ch. Chapter 5 is linked to ch. Chapter 5 ends with the capture of Babylon by Darius the Mede, thus setting the stage for the reorganization of the empire which is the point of departure for ch.

The concluding reference to Daniel in reaches to the end of Daniel's career. The stories, then, are clearly arranged in chronological order, and assume a sequence of Babylonian, Median, and Persian empires. There is no attempt in the tales, however, to associate Daniel with the fourth kingdom foretold in ch.

The visions, in chs. Chapters 7 and 8 are very closely related. Both are set in the reign of Belshazzar, therefore in the Babylonian period but not in the earlier reign of Nebuchadnezzar, to which chs. The chronological framework of the visions overlaps with the tales, but begins later and extends further.

Chapter 8, like ch. The image of the little horn is common to both. The statement at the end of ch. Chapter 9 is dated in sequence to the reign of Darius the Mede. The main analogy with ch. There is no concluding formula to smooth the transition to the next section.

It may be that ch. This is the only unit dated to the reign of Cyrus of Persia, to his third year, although ch. The statement that "the words are shut up and sealed" marks the conclusion not only of that unit but of the entire book. Despite the chronological progression in both the tales and the visions, the relation between the units is not simply sequential.

Chapters 3 and 6 provide variations on a theme of miraculous deliverance. Chapters 4 and 5 illustrate the theme of pride and humiliation. All the visions are concerned with essentially the same events—the persecution of the Jews by Antiochus Epiphanes. The final revelation is the most detailed, but it in no way supersedes those that go before it.

Rather, the different visions look at the same events from different angles. The revelation is given in the form of allegorical visions in chs. The visions are also interpreted by an angel. The content of the revelation has a review of history, in the guise of prophecy and an eschatological crisis, in each unit. Daniel 12 explicitly speaks of the resurrection of the dead. The importance of the heavenly world is shown in the vision of the divine throne in ch.

That Daniel combines a number of revelations, each of which could be regarded as an apocalypse in itself, is not unusual. This is also true of 4 Ezra, 2 Baruch, and the Similitudes of Enoch. The overarching unity of Daniel is shown by the narrative framework, which establishes Daniel's identity in chs. More unusual is the extent of the narrative framework, which is not an ad hoc composition but incorporates a collection of traditional stories which were originally composed for a different setting.

The use of legendary narratives as introductory material is not without parallel—cf. What is unusual in Daniel is the use of a collection of stories and the ideological tensions between them and the subsequent revelations. Yet in the final form of Daniel these stories definitely serve as an introduction to the revelations, and the dominant form of the whole is an apocalypse. While the subgenres of chs.

Yet it would be far too simple to view chs. The apocalyptic forms in chs. The classification of Daniel as an apocalypse is fraught with theological implications. The significance of the genre label is that it points to a context for the interpretation of the individual text. In the case of Daniel, the generic context is provided primarily by pseudepigraphic works, the various apocalypses in 1 Enoch, 4 Ezra, 2 Baruch.

There is no clear case of another apocalypse in the Hebrew Bible. Yet the total Gestalt of Daniel finds its best parallels in the Pseudepigrapha, and it is in that context that we must understand its literary conventions and function. Setting Any discussion of an apocalypse must distinguish between the ostensible setting which is given in the text and the actual settings in which it was composed and used.

Ostensibly, Daniel is set in the Exile in the sixth century, at the successive courts of Babylonian, Median, and Persian kings. The fictitious character of this setting has been demonstrated at length by Rowley and others. The main point at issue in this debate is not so much the date of the tales which are traditional stories in any case but the authenticity of the predictions in chs.

Here it must be said that the evidence of the genre creates a great balance of probability in favor of the critical viewpoint. If the historical "predictions" of Enoch are recognized as ex eventu, the burden of proof must fall on those who wish to argue that Daniel is different from the other examples of the genre. The Setting of the Tales The ostensible setting of Daniel is not without significance, however. The most probable time of composition of these stories is the third or early second century B.

The allusion to intermarriage in most probably refers to one of the dynastic marriages between the Ptolemies and the Seleucids. The Greek names of instruments in ch. Since there is no clear allusion to Antiochus Epiphanes in the tales we must assume that they were composed before the events of his reign. The origin of these traditions is most naturally to be sought in the eastern Diaspora. Whether they attained their present form there or in Judea is less certain.

There is no doubt that the revelations were composed in Judea and so we must assume that the tales were brought back from the Diaspora at some point. Any attempt to identify the social setting of the tales must of necessity be hypothetical. We may distinguish three ways of approaching the problem. First, some scholars "accept the narratives' own description of the group involved" Wilson, We cannot, of course, assume that all aspects of the story reflect the circle of the authors.

There is evidently an element of fantasy in the degree to which these Jews are honored and promoted. The authors may have been bureaucrats or counselors, educated in "the letters and language of the Chaldeans. There is no hint of rebellion in these stories. Problems may arise through professional rivalry in chs. The second line of approach is congruent with the first, and concerns the intellectual tradition reflected in the tales.

Daniel and his companions are wise men, but their wisdom is different from that of Proverbs or Sirach. The approval of dreams here, at least as revelation for Gentiles, has a precedent in the Joseph story, but may nonetheless indicate Babylonian influence. WTiile the authors' knowledge of the history of the Babylonian era was defective, they were familiar with a wide range of lore, as can be seen from the symbolism of the dream in Daniel 2.

The third line of approach is not so directly related to the ostensible setting of the tales. The "wisdom circles" in Jerusalem might also be learned in international lore and aspire to surpass the Chaldean wise men. Steck draws further support for this thesis from the hymnic passages, which resemble the hymnody of the Jerusalem temple.

The interest in the temple vessels in chs. Steck's hypothesis has merit in so far as it cautions against the assumption that the ostensible setting of the tales is necessarily the setting of the authors. The interests and attitudes of that sage are poles apart from those of Daniel, and the evaluation of dreams in the two works is directly contradictory.

While the attitudes of the tales are conceivable in the case of the Jerusalem theocracy, nothing in these stories demands a Jerusalem setting. Interest in the temple itself is lacking: the temple vessels figure prominently only in the story of Belshazzar s feast. The hypothesis of a setting in the eastern Diaspora remains more plausible. The Setting of the Visions zy On any reckoning, the authors of the tales were learned people, presumably from the upper classes.

They may have used oral materials to fashion their tales, but the end product was definitely literary in character. Porphyry noted in antiquity that the predictions in Daniel 11 are correct down to but not including the death of Antiochus Epiphanes, but thereafter incorrect or unfulfilled. The date of composition thus may be set between the profanation of the temple in and the end of B.

We need not suppose that all the revelations were composed simultaneously. The Aramaic ch. Attempts to pinpoint the date of individual chapters to specific months have not carried conviction. As we have noted above, Daniel is said to be a maskil in ch. It is more difficult to say just who these ma'skilim were. In the scholarly literature they are often identified with the Hasidim who are known from 1 and 2 Maccabees.

However, the Hasidim were mighty warriors who supported Judas Maccabee vigorously until Alcimus was appointed high priest. There is no militant ideology in Daniel. The heroes of ch. By virtue of their education they presumably belonged to the urban upper class, although they were not necessarily wealthy. They may have made their living by teaching, as Ben Sira also did.

We do not know at what point this group returned from the Diaspora to Jerusalem. Presumably these circles would have been sympathetic to Onias III rather than to the Hellenistic reform. Lebram's main argument is that the temple plays a central role in Daniel and that the disruption of the cult is the author's primary concern. This thesis would fit well with Steck's theory that the tales originated in the Jerusalem theocracy, although the two theories are independent of each other.

It is not apparent, however, that Daniel's visions are dominated by the temple to the degree that Lebram claims. The great vision in ch. The profanation of the temple by Antiochus imprinted itself on the minds of all Jews of the age, as we can see from the books of Maccabees. When the temple was threatened again in the time of Caligula, the Alexandrian Jewish philosopher Philo wrote a powerful protest in his Legatio ad Gaium.

A similar reaction is recorded in the Egyptian Jewish work 3 Maccabees. Neither Philo nor the author of 3 Maccabees belonged to the Jerusalem priesthood. There is no reason to suppose that only priests were interested in the periodization of history or cosmic chronology. The shift in interest is presumably due to the new situation and does not require a change in the make up of the group.

Steck has also argued for influence from Levitical circles with a strongly Deuteronomic theology. We will consider this suggestion in the commentary on ch. There is no evidence that they supported the Maccabees. They can be aligned with the Hasidim only if that group is understood more broadly than 2 Macc , which associates them with Judas, would suggest, although they may have had much in common with those pious scribes.

They must also be distinguished from the apocalyptic group that produced the Enoch literature. It would appear that they were quietists, concerned to preserve purity and to commune with the angelic world. Yet they took an active role in resisting Antiochus, not by fighting but by spreading the revelations contained in these visions.

This should perhaps warn us against identifying the authors too closely with any sectarian group such as the founders of the Qumran sect, although the book was copied at Qumran and has numerous points of contact with the scrolls cf. The Qumran community drew on other strands of tradition too. In any case the book of Daniel was not written for insiders but was meant to help the masses understand.

Its subsequent influence shows that it transcended the particular concerns of the group that produced it. Intention The intention of Daniel in its historical setting is surely to exhort and console the faithful Jews in the face of persecution. The tales of chs. It is useful here to distinguish between the message of the book and the technique by which it is communicated. The content of the exhortation is complete fidelity to the Jewish law, even at the risk of death.

This message is constant throughout the book and is exemplified by Daniel and his companions as well as by the ma'skilim. The context of fidelity, however, is different in the two parts of the book. In the tales, the context is the service of the Gentile kings, which is not so much commended as assumed. In chs. In this context Daniel's message acquires a more specific nuance of pacificism.

The ma'skilim are to lay down their lives, but there is no hint of militant resistance. The techniques by which the message is conveyed vary with the context. The tales arouse a sense of wonder and the miraculous, and suggest that fidelity even at the risk of death may prove paradoxically to be the key to advancement. The revelations hold no such easy optimism.

Instead they require belief in a supernatural world populated by angels and revealed through dreams and visions. The resolution of human problems must be sought in this supernatural world, and ultimately it involves not miraculous preservation from death but resurrection and exaltation in an afterlife. Throughout the book the kingdom of God provides the frame for human history. In the tales this is acknowledged primarily in the doxologies. In the visions, the human kingdoms, at least in their final manifestation, are in revolt against God, but divine sovereignty is affirmed, again through special revelations.

The kingdom is given to "the people of the saints of the Most High. There is evident continuity between the two halves zyxwv of the book, but the new situation calls for increased emphasis on the supernatural. The fictitious setting of the book in the Exile plays a part in its literary function. This device helps put the present crisis in perspective. In the revelations it also provides the occasion for ex eventu prophecy, and so for the suggestion that all is foretold and thus predetermined.

The fictitious setting also opens the book up to repeated applications, long after the crisis under Antiochus Epiphanes had passed. Ultimately the book addresses not only one particular crisis but a recurring type. So, e. The setting and function of the apocalypse then are not exhausted by a single historical referent. The origin of these differences can only be explained by the diachronic development of the book: the relations between Jews and Greeks were better when the tales were written than they were when the revelations were written.

As the book now stands, however, it addresses two types of situation, both of which recur throughout history. These are variant possibilities in life, rather than successive historical situations. The suppression of historical particularity in this case opens the way to universal applicability. Aarne and S. Conybeare, J. Harris, and A. Lewis, The Story ofAhikar 2nd ed. Gunkel, The Legends of Genesis tr.

Carruth; New York: Schocken, ; R. Jolies, Einfache Formen 2nd ed. Kaiser, ; D. Westermann, The Praise of God in the Psalms tr. The profusion of categories is due to two factors: some are simply inappropriate for this material, and others relate to different aspects and levels of the stories. This categorization is so obvious that it is usually taken for granted.

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Apocalyptic literature had its beginning investing questrade forex review


This issue urging Jeff. Everyone loves someone who can probably for eM Client and excellent way passwords and. Workspace app fetches images be full; of up.

The object of this literature in general was to reconcile the righteousness of God with the suffering condition of His righteous servants on earth. Early Old Testament prophecy taught the need of personal and national righteousness, and foretold the ultimate blessedness of the righteous nation on the present earth. Its views were not systematic and comprehensive in regard to the nations in general. Regarding the individual, it held that God's service here was its own and adequate reward, and saw no need of postulating another world to set right the evils of this one.

But later, with the growing claims of the individual and the acknowledgment of these in the religious and intellectual life, both problems, and especially the latter, pressed themselves irresistibly on the notice of religious thinkers, and made it impossible for any conception of the divine rule and righteousness to gain acceptance, which did not render adequate satisfaction to the claims of both problems. To render such satisfaction was the task undertaken by apocalyptic, as well as to vindicate the righteousness of God alike in respect of the individual and of the nation.

Later prophecy incorporated an idea of future vindication of present evils, often including the idea of an afterlife. Apocalyptic prophets sketched in outline the history of the world and mankind, the origin of evil and its course, and the final consummation of all things.

The righteous as a nation should yet possess the earth, either via an eternal Messianic kingdom on earth, or else in temporary blessedness here and eternal blessedness hereafter. Though the individual might perish amid the disorders of this world, apocalyptic prophets taught that the righteous person would not fail to attain through resurrection the recompense that was due in the Messianic kingdom or, alternatively, in heaven itself.

Some may distinguish between the messages of the prophets and the messages of proto-apocalyptic and apocalyptic literature by saying that the message of the prophets was primarily a preaching of repentance and righteousness needed for the nation to escape judgment; the message of the apocalyptic writers was of patience and trust for that deliverance and reward were sure to come. Apocalyptic literature shares with prophecy revelation through the use of visions and dreams, and these often combine reality and fantasy.

In both cases, a heavenly interpreter is often provided to the receiver so that he may understand the many complexities of what he has seen. The oracles in Amos, Hosea, First Isaiah, and Jeremiah give a clear sense of how messages of imminent punishment develop into the later proto-apocalyptic literature, and eventually into the thoroughly apocalyptic literature of Daniel 7— The fully apocalyptic visions in Daniel 7—12, as well as those in the New Testament's Revelation, can trace their roots to the pre-exilic latter biblical prophets; the sixth century BCE prophets Ezekiel, Isaiah 40—55 and 56—66, Haggai 2, and Zechariah 1—8 show a transition phase between prophecy and apocalyptic literature.

Prophecy believes that this world is God's world and that in this world His goodness and truth will yet be vindicated. Hence the prophet prophesies of a definite future arising out of and organically connected with the present. The apocalyptic writer despairs of the present and directs his hopes to the future, to a new world standing in essential opposition to the present.

This principle, which shows itself in the conception that the various nations are under angelic rulers, who are in a greater or less degree in rebellion against God, as in Daniel and Enoch, grows in strength with each succeeding age, till at last Satan is conceived as "the ruler of this world" [12] or "the god of this age. Apocalyptic writing took a wider view of the world's history than did prophecy. Whereas prophecy had to deal with governments of other nations, apocalyptic writings arose at a time when Israel had been subject for generations to the sway of one or other of the great world-powers.

Hence to harmonize Israel's difficulties with belief in God's righteousness, apocalyptic writing had to encompass such events in the counsels of God, the rise, duration and the downfall of each empire in turn, until, finally the lordship of the world passed into the hands of Israel, or the final judgment arrived. These events belonged in the main to the past, but the writer represented them as still in the future, arranged under certain artificial categories of time definitely determined from the beginning in the counsels of God and revealed by Him to His servants, the prophets.

Determinism thus became a leading characteristic of Jewish apocalyptic, and its conception of history became mechanical. The revelations from heavenly messengers about the end times came in the form of angels or from people who were taken up to heaven and returned to earth with messages. The descriptions not only tell of the end times, but also describe both past and present events and their significance, often in heavily coded language.

When speaking of the end times, apocalyptic literature generally includes chronologies of events that are to occur, and frequently places them in the near future, which gives a sense of urgency to the prophet's broader message.

Though the understanding of the present is bleak, the visions of the future are far more positive, and include divinely delivered victory and a complete reformation of absolutely everything. Many visions of these end times mirror creation mythologies, invoke the triumph of God over the primordial forces of chaos, and provide clear distinctions between light and dark, good and evil.

In such revelations, humankind is typically divided into a small group that experiences salvation, while the wicked majority is destroyed. Since the apocalyptic genre developed during the Persian period , this dualism may have developed under the influence of Persian thought.

Some are possibly falsely attributed works pseudepigraphic except for the passages from Ezekiel and Joel. Of the remaining passages and books, some consider large sections of Daniel attributable to the Maccabean period , with the rest possibly to the same period. Jeremiah —26 is assigned by Marti to Maccabean times, but this is disputed. In the transition from Jewish literature to that of early Christianity, there is a continuation of the tradition of apocalyptic prophecy. Christianity preserved the Jewish apocalyptic tradition as Judaism developed into Rabbinism and gave it a Christian character by a systematic process of interpolation.

Christianity cultivated this form of literature and made it the vehicle of its own ideas. Christianity saw itself as the spiritual representative of what was true in prophecy and apocalyptic. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Genre of prophetical writing.

This article is about the genre of religious writings dealing with revelation. For the genre of fiction dealing with cataclysm, see Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. November Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Medieval Kabbalah Ecstatic Kabbalah. The darker their present grew, the more desperate their condition in the later medieval period, the more eagerly did their minds turn to the comfort offered by the apocalyptic promises which predicted the end of their suffering and the dawn of their delivery. The following outlines of the separate apocalypses will illustrate the characteristics of the Neo-Hebrew apocalyptic.

Only certain general points, however, are treated here, as the preliminary investigation, upon which any exhaustive treatment would have to be based, has not yet been made in this branch of Apocalyptic Literature. Ishmael, and hence has been called erroneously. That the "Book of Enoch" is the original title is established by a manuscript in the Bodleian Library, and by the fact that the apocalypse is quoted under that name in the older medieval literature.

There are two editions of this book, one by Jellinek, bearing the title "Bet ha-Midrash," , v. The other appeared under the title printed together with a prayer attributed to R. Ishmael , in Lemberg, , and was reprinted in Warsaw, According to the titlepage, the latter gives the text of a very old manuscript, and in many cases has better readings than Jellinek's edition. An unedited manuscript of this apocalypse is in the Bodleian Library Oppenheimer,, old number , and bears the title see Neubauer, "Cat.

Both the printed editions are incomplete, but fortunately they supplement each other. After chapter xvi. The Lemberg edition breaks off suddenly in the middle of the apocalypse, what follows belonging to "Hekalot Rabbati" with the exception of the "addition" in chapter xxix.

Akiba see below. The number of chapters in Jellinek is forty-two, which, with the six missing chapters supplied by the Lemberg edition makes forty-eight, and this is also the number which, according to Neubauer, is contained in the Bodleian manuscript. This apocalypse is quoted very often in the rabbinical literature of the Middle Ages, particularly in the cabalistic branch.

Excerpts of chaps. Munich, 81 "with many better readings" than in Jellinek Steinschneider, "Hebr. A new critical edition is much to be desired, and in connection with the preparation of such, it would be necessary to determine to what extent the quotations from the Book of Enoch in the rabbinical literature of the Middle Ages belong to the present book, or are taken from other books of Enoch.

There are, for example, lengthy quotations from the Book of Enoch in the manuscript work, "Mishkan ha-'Edut" of Moses de Leon, which are not in the book under consideration given by Jellinek, "B. This book is an interesting specimen of the apocalypse, and illustrates strikingly many of the characteristics of the literature to which it belongs. It shows an intimate dependence upon the "Book of the Secrets of Enoch" discovered some years ago in a Slavonic translation.

A brief synopsis of the book will best show the metamorphosis which the old pseudepigraphic writing underwent, and what new elements from other apocalypses were added in the process; it will also show that there is justification for considering it a genuine apocalypse and treating it altogether apart from the "Hekalot" literature. The book opens with the verse Gen. Ishmael then proclaimed the glory of the Lord, and all the angels joined him.

In chap. In chaps. Jared, and that at the time of the Deluge God had him translated to heaven, by his angel 'Anpi'el, in a chariot of fire, that there he might bear eternal witness against his sinful contemporaries. Further that God, overcoming the protests of the heavenly hosts, transfigured him with the rays of heavenly glory and made him as one of themselves, in order that he might serve before His throne as one of the highest angel-princes compare "Secrets of Enoch," xxii.

Adam and his generation, sitting at the entrance to paradise, beheld the heavenly glory until, in the time of Enoch, 'Aza and 'Azael led men to idolatry compare ib. And just as recension A of "Secrets of Enoch" mentions, besides the seven heavens, an eighth muzalot and a ninth kuchavim and above them all a tenth 'arabot , the seat of God's glory, so this book has a separate heaven for the sun and moon, together with the stations of the moon mazzalot , another for the stars kokabim —with the difference, however, that these two are under the seven heavens—and a highest heaven over them all, called here also 'arabot , the abode of God and of the highest angelic hosts.

Then Ishmael sees how the souls of the Patriarchs and of all the righteous ascend out of their graves to heaven, beseeching God to deliver His people Israel from their bondage among the heathen. God answers them that the sins of the wicked hold back the delivery of His people and the realization of His kingdom. While the Patriarchs are weeping at this declaration, Michael, Israel's guardian angel, intervenes, pleading for Israel's delivery.

Joseph and his age, and Messiah b. David and his age, together with the wars of Gog and Magog and the other events of the Messianic era. In the concluding chapter xlviii. At the same moment God's right hand pours forth five streams of tears which, falling into the ocean, cause the world to shake; and God avers, that, although there is no righteous man upon earth whose intercession could bring about Israel's delivery, yet He will save them for His own sake, for the sake of His justice and His own goodness.

God prepares Himself to reveal His mighty power to the heathen; whereupon Israel will be immediately delivered and the Messiah will appear to them, in order to conduct them to Jerusalem, where they, to the exclusion of the tyrannical heathen, will share his kingdom, and God will be king over the whole earth.

Apart from the fact that R. Ishmael, of the period of the Hadrianic persecution, figures as the author, and from the allusion in the last chapter to the destruction of the Temple through which data the earliest date possible is fixed , there are no definite references to historical events and conditions from which the date of the composition of the "Book of Enoch" could be more exactly determined.

There is, however, a passage in Talmud Berakot about R. Ishmael which naturally suggests itself in this connection, and which admits of the adoption of at least a latest possible date. The passage 7 a reads:.

Ishmael b. Compare also the passage immediately preceding: "What does God pray? Raba says, 'May My mercy conquer My anger, and may My mercy gush forth as is the way of mercy, and may I deal with My children according to My mercy, and requite them, though contrary to the rigid rules of the Law.

The passages quoted compel the conclusion that the Hebrew Book of Enoch can not have been written later than the time of the completion of the Babylonian Talmud. An apocalyptic fragment, in which R. Ishmael likewise figures as the author, is preserved in the "Siddur" of R. Amram Gaon of the second half of the ninth century , 3 b , 12 b a. Gerson b. On account of the relationship of these additions to chaps. Gaster gives a translation of the fragment in the "Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society," , pp.

In this fragment R. Ishmael relates that Ssngir, one of the chief angels, revealed to him the sufferings reserved for Israel; and when he expressed wonder that Israel could ever endure these, the angel showed him still greater sufferings in store—captivity, famine, and pillage. As Ishmael and the angel parted, the former heard a voice proclaiming in Aramaic:.

Upon this announcement Ishmael fell to the ground unconscious, but was restored by another of the chief angels, of whom he then asked if there were no remedy for Israel. For answer the angel led him to the place where salvation and comfort were prepared; and Ishmael saw there groups of angels weaving garments of salvation for the righteous of the future world, and making magnificent crowns out of precious stones and pearls, perfumed with nectar and all sorts of fragrant odors, one of which crowns was of especial brilliance.

The angel informed Ishmael that the crowns were intended for Israel, the especially magnificent one being for King David. Amid the roar of the motion of the heavens with their armies of stars, and all the hosts of angels, and amid the sound of a great mysterious rustling which proceeded from paradise, Ishmael heard: "YHWH reigns forever: thy God, O Zion, to all generations! David went up to the heavenly Temple, placed himself upon the throne of fire prepared for him near God's throne, and presented his homage to God in hymns of praise, proclaiming the eternal duration of His kingdom.

The Messianic doctrine in this fragment, in which David figures as the Messiah, is unique, not only as far as the Neo-Hebrew, but as far as apocalyptic in general is concerned. It compels the conclusion that this fragment is distinct from the "Book of Enoch" treated above as the work of an altogether different author.

Further, it indicates a very early origin, which is fully confirmed by the "prophecy after the event"; the Ishmael in this apocalypse too can only be the rabbi Ishmael, extolled in legend as a martyr of the Hadrianic persecution.

Hence the date of composition must fall after the destruction of the Temple; and the only event which can come into consideration as making such a prophecy comprehensible is the disastrous termination of the reign of Bar Kokba. At that juncture the conditions and events furnished a basis for the "prophecy after the event" contained in the apocalypse under consideration: that the Temple would be profaned and destroyed, the royal palace demolished, Jerusalem turned into a desert, and the whole land of Israel rendered desolate.

Indeed the fragment reads as if it were written under the immediate impression of the Hadrianic persecution. It seems plausible that this book was the intermediary through which the peculiar metamorphosis of the "Secrets of Enoch," into the Neo-Hebrew Book of Enoch, was accomplished. The Latin version of "The Assumption of Moses," which is preserved only as a fragment, must certainly have contained, in its missing part, an account of the death of Moses and of the dispute between the archangel Michael and Satan or the angel of death over the dead body.

Among the Neo-Hebrew apocalypses there is an "Ascension of Moses," as well as a fragment which, besides revealing the future, tells of the death of Moses and of the dispute that ensued after his death. This apocalypse was published for the first time in Salonica in , under the title , and has been printed several times since in Amsterdam, ; Warsaw, , etc. It was translated by Gaster l. This Arabic version has a longer introduction, and varies somewhat in the text from our version.

The contents of the book, according to Gaster's translation, are thus summarized. In the first heaven Moses sees waters "standing in line," and windows to let in and out all the things pertaining to human life and its needs. At this point occur two passages of later interpolation, one from Pes. God then tells Moses that He will confer on him the further privilege of seeing hell and paradise, and, at God's command, the angel Gabriel conducts Moses to hell.

There he sees the manifold torments and punishments of the different classes of sinners, those who were envious of their fellow men and bore false witness against them; women who exposed their charms to young men; sinners who committed adultery, theft, and murder; those who perjured themselves; those who desecrated the Sabbath, despised the learned, and persecuted orphans; those who committed sodomy and idolatry, or cursed their parents; those who took bribes, put their fellow men to shame, delivered up their brother-Israelite to the Gentile, and denied the oral law; those that ate all kinds of forbidden food; usurers; apostates, and blasphemers; those who wrote the ineffable name of God, and those who ate on Yom Kippur.

Gabriel then leads Moses into paradise. Here he sees first the guardian angel of paradise, sitting under the tree of life, who shows him the several costly thrones erected in paradise, each surrounded by seventy angels—the thrones for the Patriarchs, for the scholars who studied the Law day and night for the sake of heaven; for the pious men, for the just, and for the repentant—and a throne of copper, prepared for the wicked whose sons are pious, as in the case of Terah.

Finally, he sees the fountain of life welling forth from beneath the tree of life, and dividing itself into four streams, and four rivers flowing under each throne, "the first of honey, the second of milk, the third of wine, and the fourth of pure balsam. As Moses is leaving paradise a voice calls from heaven: "Moses,. Up to the present no attempt has been made to ascertain the date of composition of this apocalypse; but the allusion in the last chapter to the rebuilding of the Temple places it after that event.

The descriptions of the different classes of sinners in hell and their punishment are strikingly similar to in fact, are in parts identical with those found in a number of Christian apocalypses; namely, the "Apocalypse of Peter," that of "Pastor Hermas," and the second book of the "Sibylline Oracles" all three written in the second century , and the later apocalypses of Esdras and Paul, both perhaps dependent upon the "Apocalypse of Peter.

This is a fragment preserved in the "Midrash Bereshit Rabbati" of R. Moses ha-Darshan a manuscript in the library of the Jewish congregation in Prague , which was published by Jellinek in "B. It is intended as an exegesis to Gen. The following is a synopsis of its contents:. As the time for Moses' death approached, God permitted him to ascend into heaven, and unveiledto him the future world. Aaron imparted to Moses that his death was near at hand, whereupon Moses asked God for permission to speak with the Messiah.

The latter then revealed to him that the sanctuary which God was then constructing was the Temple and the Jerusalem, which would be established for Israel in the future world to endure for all eternity, and that God had shown the same Jerusalem to Jacob in his dream in Beth-el. To Moses' question when the new Jerusalem would descend to earth, God replied: "I have not yet revealed the end to any one; should I reveal it to thee?

Moses refused to yield it; but finally God appeared to him, and he surrendered his soul to God willingly and cheerfully. It has already been noted that the Babylonian Talmud tells of revelations which R. Levi was supposed to have received from the prophet Elijah and from the Messiah. In this apocalypse R. Joshua himself figures as the author. Gaster published a translation of it l. Levi"; for the contents leave no doubt that it really is an apocalypse.

An Aramaic version also existed, a fragment of which is preserved in Moses b. Jellinek points out that this Aramaic version is a proof of the ancient origin of the apocalypse l. As the time of R. Levi's death was drawing near, God sent the angel of death to him, commissioning him to fulfil whatever R. Joshua might wish. The latter requested to be shown the place awaiting him in paradise, and desired the angel to give his sword to him. Upon arriving in paradise, Joshua, against the will of the angel, leaped over the wall: God allowed him to remain there, but commanded him to return the sword.

Elijah called out: "Make way for the son of Levi! Gamaliel, who sent him back to R. Joshua with the request that he explore both paradise and hell and send him a description of them. Joshua carried out this request. Here follows a description of the different compartments of paradise, seven in number. In the first dwell the proselytes to Judaism; in the second, repentant sinners with King Manasseh presiding over them; in the third, the Patriarchs and the Israelites who came out of Egypt, David and Solomon, and all the kings of their house; in the fourth, the perfectly righteous.

In the fifth, which is of special splendor and exquisite beauty, are the Messiah and Elijah, the latter caressing the Messiah and saying to him, "Be comforted, for the end draweth nigh! In the sixth, dwell those who died in piety; and in the seventh, those who died for the sins of Israel. To his question, whether any of the heathen, or even any of his brother Esau's descendants, were in paradise, R.

Joshua received the answer, that they obtained the reward for their good works in this world, and therefore in the other world must dwell in hell; in the case of the sinners in Israel, however, just the opposite principle is followed. Hell could not be viewed immediately, for just at that moment the news reached heaven of the execution of the Ten Martyrs.

When R. Joshua entered hell some time later, he saw there ten heathen nations, over whom, as a punishment for his disobedience to his father, Absalom, the son of David, is compelled to preside. Seven times a day these heathen are burned by angels in pits of fire, being brought out whole again every time. Absalom alone is excepted from this punishment: he sits upon a throne, honored as a king. The chief center of thought of all of them is the mystical signification, already mentioned in the Talmud, of the letters of the alphabet and of their written forms, and the mysteries of the names of God made up of four, twelve, and forty-two letters.

In the Babylonian Talmud Shab. Similarly, R. Akiba, the reputed author of the "Alphabets," is especially commended in the Talmud as interpreter of the strokes, dots, and flourishes of the letters compare, for example, Men. Up to the present time, the pseudepigrapha in question have been generally considered mystical writings treating upon some eschatological points, not as real apocalypses; but the different compositions, as far as they are known, show clearly that the real theme of all is the eschatological problem, and that the discussion of the other supernatural mysteries only goes hand in hand with this, as in the apocalypses hitherto noticed.

So far, two of the alphabets have appeared in print, one of which is three times as long as the other: the longer was published first in Constantinople, in the above-mentioned collection , and again in Venice, Both editions are incomplete; but the gaps are filled in part by the Cracow edition, which was published in , was reprinted in Amsterdam, , and which contains also the shorter version.

Jellinek published both in "B. Several manuscripts of both have been preserved; as, for example, in the Munich Codex 22, folio , which supplies the gaps purposely left in the longer composition in the Cracow-Amsterdam edition; in the Vatican Codex, , 3 see Wolf, "Bibl.

A fragment of the shorter is contained in the Bodleian Library manuscript, No. There are, besides, three other manuscripts in the Bodleian Library containing alphabets of R. Akiba compare ib. The catalogue does not give any details of their contents; but the fact that none of them is marked "printed" would indicate that they are not identical with the published "Alphabets.

This fragment originated in the Orient, as is shown by the words "the calendar of the Gentiles," which signify "dating from the Hegira"; more exactly, it may be inferred from the concluding words which quote a Persian expression, that it originated in Persia.

Jellinek's distinction of the two published alphabets as "First Recension" and "Second Recension" "B. There is also a very brief and condensed narration of Enoch's assumption into heaven, of his transformation into one of the angels at the heavenly throne, and of his initiation into all the mysteries of heaven and earth. This piece is not in the Constantinople-Venice edition, but is to be found in the Cracow-Amsterdam edition, and also in the Munich Codex.

The names of God are obtained from combinations of the different letters of the alphabets, already alluded to as characteristic of this group of writings. Closely bound up with the relation of the above mysteries is the glorification of the Torah as the aim and end of creation and the center of future bliss. Because of its observance Israel will inherit the joys of paradise, whereas the heathen, having disregarded it, will be given over to hell.

God Himself, surrounded by His host of angels, will expound the Torah to the righteous in paradise, whereupon Zerubbabel will proclaim God's glory, so that it will resound over the whole world; the sinners of Israel and the pious among the heathen in hell will add their "amen" to this glorification and will be found worthy of admittance to paradise. The pleasures of the righteous in paradise are described in a glowing, sensuous style: God Himself dwells among and associates with them like one of themselves, contributing actively to their entertainment.

As the materializing of God in this gross manner has hitherto been considered a sure proof of the later origin of a work, it may be well to call attention to the fact that there is a parallel to this description in the oldest Midrash, Sifra, ed. Malbim, a ; compare also Ta'anit, 31 a. The circumstance, that in these writings the Torah is placed in such prominence, explains, too, their eminently parenetic character. In regard to R. Akiba's alleged authorship of these writings, it may be recalled, that, as early as the Jerusalem Talmud, a legend was current that R.

Akiba enjoyed the superhuman privilege of ascending to heaven and having the secrets of God revealed to him Yer. Further, it seems worthy of notice, that, in the fragment of an "Alphabet of R. Akiba" contained in the Lemberg edition of the Book of Enoch, xxix. To conclude, with Jellinek and Steinschneider compare "B. Akiba" are incomplete to the extent suggested here, would be premature until all the manuscripts have been published.

Brief reference may again be made to the views of Zunz and Graetz regarding the origin of the theosophical speculation contained in the apocalypses which have been discussed thus far. If both hold Islam responsible for the theosophy in these Neo-Hebrew apocalypses, because similar vagaries and stretches of imagination are found in its literature see Zunz, "G.

From the presence of mystical speculations about the essence and being of God, etc. This apocalypse, , appeared first in Salonica in , printed in the same volume with several other pieces, and was reprinted by Jellinek in "B. The result arrived at in this essay was that in this book it is necessary to distinguish between the originalapocalypse and a later addition, which consists of a dispute among the doctors of the Law of the second and third centuries, concerning the name of the last king of Persia.

The original apocalypse was written amid the confusion of the year , caused by the wars of Sapor I. In all probability the author lived in Palestine. During the exciting period of the Perso-Roman wars waged by Chosroes I. The contents of the book are as follows: Michael reveals the end of time to Elijah on Mt.

Elijah is first conducted through various heavenly regions, and the revelations regarding the end are imparted to him. The last king of Persia will march to war against Rome in three successive years, and will finally take three military leaders prisoner. Then Gigit will advance against him, "the [little] horn," the last king hostile to God who will rule upon earth, as Daniel beheld.

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Priscilla was adopted by a family in Michigan. She loves her new home. He thought he knew the library well. But today he made a turn and was suddenly lost. Walking on his tiptoes, Peter came up to the corner and looked under the shelf. My dad found a good job there. This will be the fourth time in my life that we pack and go to a new place!

How many times have you moved in your lifetime, if any? What would be the house or apartment of your dreams? Of all the literary genres employed in the Bible, none is more difficult to define than the apocalyptic genre. Scholars have not found it easy to reach a consensus on what exactly is meant by the word apocalyptic.

Does this term refer primarily to a particular genre of literature? Or does it refer to a concentration of particular themes, such as final judgment, angelic mediation, and vindication of the righteous? Or does it refer to a particular style of writing, one characterized by strange symbolism and obscure numerology? Or does it refer to a particular form of eschatology, one characterized by imminent divine intervention into human activities?

Or does it refer to something entirely different? As Morris remarks, "it is not easy to define what we mean by apocalyptic literature. A number of factors contribute to this problem of definition. First, apocalyptic elements are sometimes embedded in writings that are not otherwise apocalyptic in nature. Certain parts of the Old Testament that are not distinctly apocalyptic contain blocks of material with strong apocalyptic elements.

The so-called Little Apocalypse or Isaiah Apocalypse found in Isaiah 24—27, for example, is a unit of apocalyptic material situated within a much larger corpus of prophetic writing that is not apocalyptic in terms of genre. The book of Joel has certain apocalyptic elements, even though that book as a whole is not what one would call apocalyptic literature.

One finds in the books of Ezekiel and Zechariah material that has much in common with apocalyptic literature, although these prophetic books are not entirely apocalyptic. Even in the book of Daniel, which is the most obvious example of apocalyptic literature in the Old Testament, roughly half the book is not apocalyptic, consisting instead of stories related to the life of Daniel.

This mixture of genre makes it difficult to define precisely what is meant by the term apocalyptic and to delimit properly its literary boundaries. Second, ancient texts vary a great deal in the degree to which they use features commonly associated with apocalyptic literature. Some works contain stronger concentrations of apocalyptic features than certain other works that should nonetheless be classified as apocalyptic literature.

This variety leads to a question more easily asked than answered: How many features or characteristics of apocalyptic literature must be present in a given writing before we allow that the label apocalyptic is appropriate in that case? The more numerous or pronounced such features become in a particular text, the more comfortable we are likely to be in assigning the label apocalyptic to that text.

But there is a grey area here as well. A text may be apocalyptic in terms of its use of symbolism and determinism , for example, while other important apocalyptic themes are less emphasized or perhaps even absent altogether. For this reason it may be helpful to think of apocalyptic literature as a continuum, with some texts further along in their utilization of apocalyptic features than other works that may still warrant the label apocalyptic. Such variation contributes to the difficulty in defining what is meant by the term apocalyptic.

Third, there has been a tendency in biblical scholarship to use the term apocalyptic very loosely, without giving adequate attention to what is meant by this word. The word apocalyptic was apparently first used in biblical studies by K. Nitzsch in the eighteenth century to refer to works at least vaguely similar to the book of Revelation, which identifies itself as an apocalypse Rev.

However, the details of the proposed similarity are rather subjective and perhaps even amorphous at times. Consequently, according to some scholars the term apocalyptic has become in biblical studies a slippery word, resisting demands for precision and accuracy in terms of proper use.

Richard A. His publications include a text-critical analysis of the Peshitta of Daniel, a commentary on Haggai, and a handbook on apocalyptic literature. He has also edited with Craig E. Morrison a volume on Syriac, Hebrew, and Greek lexicography. Customer Reviews, including Product Star Ratings help customers to learn more about the product and decide whether it is the right product for them.

Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon. It also analyzed reviews to verify trustworthiness. Enhance your purchase. Howard Jr. However, in recent decades it has moved to the forefront of research. The rich veins of insight to be mined in the book of Daniel and other apocalyptic texts are being rediscovered.

Taylor has crafted a handbook to explore those riches and uncover a way to understand apocalyptic literature more fully. Taylor begins with a helpful introduction to the genre; surveys the purpose, message, and primary themes of Old Testament apocalyptic literature; and then discusses critical questions and key works for further study. He also provides guidelines for interpreting apocalyptic texts, followed by Old Testament passages that serve to illustrate those guidelines.

While primarily written for pastors and graduate students, Interpreting Apocalyptic Literature is nonetheless accessible to those who simply want to study the texts more deeply than previously possible. Previous page. Print length. Kregel Academic. Publication date. See all details.

Next page. Frequently bought together. Total price:. To see our price, add these items to your cart. Choose items to buy together. In Stock. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. Gary Smith. Marvin Pate. Edward M.

Herbert W. Bateman IV. David Turner. John Harvey. All rights reserved. Taylor, David M. Taylor All rights reserved. What Is Apocalyptic Literature? Major Themes in Apocalyptic Literature, 41, 3. Preparing for Interpretation of Apocalyptic Literature, 87, 4. Interpreting Apocalyptic Literature, , 5.

Proclaiming Apocalyptic Literature, , 6. Excerpted by permission of Kregel Publications. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher. Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. Start reading Interpreting Apocalyptic Literature on your Kindle in under a minute. Don't have a Kindle? About the author Follow authors to get new release updates, plus improved recommendations.

Brief content visible, double tap to read full content. Full content visible, double tap to read brief content. Read more Read less. Customer reviews. How customer reviews and ratings work Customer Reviews, including Product Star Ratings help customers to learn more about the product and decide whether it is the right product for them. Learn more how customers reviews work on Amazon. Top reviews Most recent Top reviews.

Top reviews from the United States. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Verified Purchase. Very good reference on apocalyptic passages. Sure did. Compared to the Old Testament, more people find it easier to interpret the New Testament. The same is true for apocalyptic literature. Seeing this need for training and equipping, Kregel publishers have prepared a series of handbooks to assist readers on understanding, exegesis, and interpretation of difficult Old Testament topics.

There are a total of six volumes covering the six genres of narrative, law, poetry, wisdom, prophecy, and apocalyptic literature. They aim to help us understand the principles of understanding and the methods for communicating and teaching. All the handbooks follow the six chapter structure: 1 The Nature of the Genres 2 Major Themes 3 Preparing for Interpretation 4 Interpretation 5 Proclamation 6 Summarizing the Process from Text to Sermon In this latest handbook, the author notes that apocalyptic literature has been in the forefront of research.

This is typical during times of depression and economic gloom, where many seek solace and comfort in trying not only to explain the times but to anticipate hope. Knowing that the range of apocalyptic literature is huge, Richard Taylor decides to zoom in on the Book of Daniel, discover the principles of interpretation and to extrapolate the methods to other apocalyptic literature.

He describes apocalyptic literature as revelatory literature disclosed to humans to showcase a transcendent reality both now and in the future, so as to influence the behaviour of the recipients. It is a way of thinking. In trying to clarify the terms, he goes so far as to differentiate apocalypse from apocalypticism; apocalyptic eschatology, discourse, and proto-apocalyptic. He uses the book of Daniel and highlights the message, the purpose, the major themes, before highlighting the principles that could be used for other apocalyptic passages.

A key point to remember is that apocalyptic literature do not always present themselves neatly in one book, block, or chunk of literature. They are often found embedded in various passages, implied or explicit, mixed with non-apocalyptic literature, and subject to other genre considerations. On the major themes, we require the major intertestamental texts and the Dead Sea scrolls to guide our interpretation. Not all themes appear in every apocalyptic passage.

In the same way, the existence of a theme does not mean the passage is apocalyptic. Genre is crucial to understanding. Taylor offers us the following guide to recognizing the features of apocalyptic literature: - They prefer the literary rather than oral expression - Content that is more revelatory - Emphasis on dreams and visions - Pseudonymous authorship that points to some past hero - Hidden and secret - Pervasive symbolism - Developed Angelology - Ethical dualism - Deterministic outlook - Belief in imminent crisis - Presence of faithful remnant - Warnings of divine judgment - Anticipate future hope In preparing for interpretation, we note the five ares to consider.

We need to comprehend the figurative language used. We evaluate issues of textual transmission. We learn to work with the original languages as well as other sources. The interpretation process comes after the heavy lifting of exegesis and genre understanding.

Some important guidelines to interpretation include: - Grammar, syntax, and History - Genre issues - Locate interpretive clues within the texts - Look at the macrostructure - Recognizing the limits of figurative language - Respecting the parts where Scripture is silent Knowing the pitfalls of interpretation is probably one of the most important part of interpretation. We can err on the manipulating details, becoming too certain or dogmatic, or reading meaning into the text instead of getting meaning from the text.

Preaching and proclaiming the apocalyptic texts require the building of a bridge from the ancient contexts to the modern era. Seven basic steps are proposed. This essentially puts whatever that have been discussed in theory directly into practice in the hope that readers can adapt and adopt the principles of interpretation to the other apocalyptic passages.

Taylor is a scholar who is well aware of the limitations of human interpretation. This is the hallmark of a good teacher, to be able to recognize one's limits while encouraging readers to explore the potential of their learning. Apocalyptic literature is definitely one that will stretch our imaginations and interpretations. This handbook will be particularly helpful for preachers wanting to go deep into the apocalyptic literature without becoming lost in the details.

Having a general overview of the passage is critical so as not to miss out the trees for the forest. Taylor brings a lot of experience into the writing of this book. I especially appreciate the warnings about over-interpretation or eisegesis, which is such a great temptation in our world of scientific certainty and sky-high expectations of modern knowledge. Studying apocalyptic literature means three things to me. First, it challenges us to be clear about what we want to interpret.

Taylor spends time trying to distinguish between the various terms like apocalypse, apocalyptic, eschatology, proto-apocalypse, and so on. This tells me that before we can be clear about any answer, we need to be clear about our questions in the first place.

When we are clear about the question and the terms, it makes it easier for us to study and to reach a meaningful goal in our studies. Second, it humbles us in an age where everyone seems to believe they have a right to their own opinions and understanding. The Bible clearly says that the fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge and wisdom. With apocalyptic literature, one can never be too certain and interpretation has to be done carefully and diligently.

At the same time, there is always a need for an open mind to receive what God would teach us in other ways. This book is but one of the many ways to do so. Third, it encourages us to take these apocalyptic literature from the ivory towers to the masses.

While it is acknowledged that apocalyptic literature has moved to the forefront of scholarship and academic research, the same cannot be said of modern pulpits. We need to share the findings of the academy with the common layperson. After all, the Word of God is meant for all, not just scholars and professors. All in all, I am happy with this book and the principles listed. This will be an important resource for pastors, preachers, teachers, and all who teach the Bible in one way or another.

He is also the Director of the PhD program at Dallas. Rating: 4. All opinions offered above are mine unless otherwise stated or implied. Taylor therefore expands his comments beyond the canon of the Hebrew Bible to include literature from the Second Temple Period usually classified as apocalyptic.

The first chapter defines apocalyptic literature. Taylor surveys the contemporary resurgence of interest in apocalyptic as well as the difficulty scholars have defining the genre. He distinguishes between an apocalypse as a form of literature and apocalypticism as a worldview. This is an important distinction since some literature labeled as apocalyptic does not represent the kind of apocalypticism commonly used in contemporary discussions.

What is more, there is a difference between apocalyptic as a genre and an apocalyptic eschatology. The sudden and decisive intervention of God to judge the world may appear in wide a variety of literature, whether that literature is apocalyptic or not. Taylor also distinguishes between proto-apocalyptic presumably Isaiah and the later fully developed apocalyptic presumably Daniel and 1 Enoch The later forms of apocalyptic tend toward otherworldly journeys or esoteric allegories The Animal Apocalypse.

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Apocalyptic literature had its beginning investing About us. Add to Cart. First, literary forms are used in a subordinate way within a larger whole—e. Presumably these circles would have been sympathetic to Onias III rather than to the Hellenistic reform. The Aramaic ch. While the passage in 4 Ezra is clearly dependent on Daniel, the setting is different. Release from the furnace 26 1.
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